TOEIC Grammar: Conditionals (For My Students Around The World)

Conditionals

 

Type 0 General truth

If-clause (hypothesis)

Main clause (result)

Use

If + present simple

Present simple

If the temperature falls below 0 C, water turns into ice.

Type 1 Real present

If + present simple, present perfect or can

future/ imperative can/may/might/must/should/ could/have to + bare infinitive

real – likely to happen in the present or future

If he doesn’t pay the fine, he will go to prison.
If you need help, come and see me.
If you have finished your work, we can have a break. If you’re ever in the area, you should come and visit us.

Type 2 Unreal present

If + past simple (were)

would/could/should + bare infinitive

imaginary situation contrary to facts in the present; also used to give advice

If I had time, I would take up a sport.
(but I don’t have time – untrue in the present)
If I were you, I would talk to my parents about it. (giving advice)

Type 3 Unreal past

If + past perfect (had +PII)

would/should/could + have + PII

imaginary situation contrary to facts in the past; also used to express regrets or criticism

If she had studied harder, she would have passed the test.

Conditional clauses consist of two parts: the if-clause (hypothesis) and the main clause (result). When the if-clause comes before the main clause, the two clauses are separated with a comma. When the main clause comes before the if-clause, then no comma is necessary.

Example: If I see Tim, I’ll give him his book.

I’ll give Tim his book if I see him.

 

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