TOEIC: Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions link a main clause with a subordinate clause.  There are different kinds of conjunctions that show different kinds of relationships between two clauses.

Time: before, after, while, when, until, as soon as

Please take these packages to the post office before it closes.

After the meeting was over, we enjoyed dinner.


Cause and effect: because, so, as, since

Everyone went home early because the weather was so bad.

Since I don’t know their phone number, I couldn’t call them.


Contradiction: even though, although

The subway was crowded even though it was early in the morning.

Although we planned the agenda carefully, the meeting ran over time.


Condition: if, unless

If Maria didn’t work so hard, she wouldn’t always feel so stressed.

Unless business picks up, we will have to close down several branch offices.

  1. _________ she possesses such business acumen, she was able to regain control of the company.
  1. after
  2. even though
  3. because
  4. until

2) __________ there were many applicants, it was hard to find the right candidate who was qualified for the position.

  1. since
  2. so
  3. although
  4. if

3) Our department did not reach it’s monthly  quota ________ we worked a lot of overtime and hired two temporary workers.

  1. because
  2. even though
  3. unless
  4. or

4) _________ we continue at this rate, we should have everything finished by the end of the week.

  1. unless
  2. so
  3. although
  4. if

5) _________ Mr. Meyers enters the room, everyone should stand up and clap of this because of his valiant efforts in the campaign.

  1. when
  2. while
  3. so
  4. since

6) With the help of a few eager student interns, today’s mail will be sorted ______ it arrives at our division.

  1. before
  2. until
  3. since
  4. even though

7) Mr. Fagan notified security by telephone ___________ he heard something suspicious going on in the hotel room.

  1. so
  2. although
  3. unless
  4. when

8) As was mentioned in our earlier announcements, the plane cannot leave the gate __________ all passengers are seated and baggage is safely stowed.

  1. if
  2. when
  3. unless
  4. but

9) __________ she opened the meeting and addressed the current issues, the project director faxed the agenda to the vice president.

  1. before
  2. and
  3. if
  4. but

10) __________ the research uncovered some problems, the committee members decided to table the proposal temporarily.

  1. since
  2. even though
  3. unless
  4. until




Subordinating Conjunctions.

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