Here are some close listening techniques on how to follow abstract argumentation, as well as listening for main ideas. Nonetheless, you’re going to practice and number the main points (on my blog if you’re reading this elsewhere) in order.
____ compares two different ideas introduced previous.
____describes a question type that gives the answer.
____examines a question type that introduces new emotions.
____explains the choice of lecture focus.
____identifies a question type that suggests too much.
____introduces two issues to be discussed.
____justifies the argument against the mind bucket comparison.
____presents an argument against questionnaires.
____provides a conclusion combining the two issues.
____supports an argument with evidence from research
Arguments: are often presented in stages. Recognizing these stages helps the listener to follow and understand the line of reasoning and evaluate the conclusion reached by the speaker.
Assumptions: the speaker presents the premise of the argument, making one or more statements. The speaker may identify these explicitly as the argument.
Reasoning: evidence is provided to support or refute the argument. The speaker can include reasoning for both sides, showing consideration has been given to more than one perspective. this often strengthens the eventual conclusion.
Conclusion: Having given the argument, and possibly summarized it, the speaker indicates his or her position.
Implicit assumptions are common in day-to-day life. In these cases, speakers, deliberately or not, include points they assume the audience believes, and provide no reasoning for these. Recognize these assumptions.
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