Participle clauses are used to make academic writing more succinct. The present participle (-ing) has an active meaning. The past participle (-ed) has a passive meaning. In this podcast, we’ll be discussing examples and I’ll have some exercises for you available on my website!
- We use participle clauses to express cause, effect, and condition. Introduced effectively, change can be positive. (= if it is introduced)
- We can use participle clauses with on, while, after, and before to describe time. On/While facing reduced sales, the company implemented change. (= When they were facing)
- We use the present particle (having + -ed verb) to say that an action finished before another action. Having found his feet, he accepted the change. (= because he had found his feet).
Rewrite the sentences using a participle clause. Use the prompts to help you.
- Because they wanted to create a change strategy, senior managers brought in a consultant.
2. When they were reading the consultant’s report, they realize they needed to organize a meeting.
3. The meeting took place in the boardroom and was attended by all management.
4. When they heard about the report, the managers had a lot of question.
5. Employees were known to dislike change and so managers thought they may reject the proposals.
Rewrite the sentences, replacing the underlined section with a participle clause.
- As some staff members heard about the changes, they became angry.
- Some staff members resigned because they did not welcome change.
- After they outlined the need for change, managers received positive feedback from the staff.
- All staff received training and successfully coped with the changes.
- If they are implemented appropriately, change strategies can succeed.