IELTS Coaching | S1: 10 | Speaking Season Finale | Avoiding Repetition Using Substitution and Ellipsis

Welcome back to the final episode of my IELTS coaching (not live this time). In today’s episode, we’re going to break down different responses from candidates and why one is better than the other. After that, we’re going to underline the parts of the answer that one of the candidates spoke on, avoiding repetition.

Then you’re going to fill in the blanks down below in terms of using references, lexical cohesion, substitution, and ellipsis.

Candidate A: No, I don’t think it’s important for friends to have similar personalities. It would be very boring and predictable if friends all had the same personality. I think sometimes the most interesting relationships are the relationships between very different personalities. People sometimes assume that relationships between different personalities can lead to arguments but they don’t have to lead to arguments. For example, one person could be quite social whilst the person’s friend isn’t sociable, but together the two friends’ personalities can make a good balance.

Candidate B: No, I don’t think so. It would be very boring and predictable if friends all had the same character. I think sometimes the most interesting relationships are the ones between very different individuals. People sometimes assume that this type of friendship can lead to arguments but they don’t have to. For example, one person could be quite sociable whilst her friend isn’t, but together personalities can make a good balance.

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Underline the parts of Candidate B’s answer which are used to avoid repetition. Which parts of Candidate A’s answer are they replacing?

Now, match the words and phrases you identified in 2 with the techniques to avoid repetition below.

Reference: using a pronoun (he, it, their, this, these) to refer to something already mentioned: ________________________.

Lexical cohesion: replacing one item of vocabulary with another which has a similar meaning: ________________________.

Substitution: replacing one item with a pronoun or other item (an auxiliary verb, so, one(s), neither, not): _________________.

Ellipsis: omitting a word or phrase completely: ________________________________.

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