TOEFL iBT | Reading | Earth’s Age

  1. Understand that geologic processes occur in repeating cycles
  2. Hutton understood that if these geologic procedures have dependably happened at about the same rate as they do today, Earth’s history is tremendously long compared to mankind’s.
  3. They didn’t realize that a great part of the sedimentary record is missing and in this way, believed that Earth was substantially younger than it is in reality.
  4. Broken
  5. To refer to a strategy for assessing the age of the Sun that was utilized to decide Earth’s age
  6. Was not possible through chemical reactions alone over a long period of time
  7. It is shockingly similar to estimates from the nineteenth century
  8. All parts of the solar system formed at approximately the same time
  9. D
  10. A, C, E

The correct answer is D. This is the point where it would be appropriate to add the sentence “This thought came to be known as the rule of uniformitarianism, and Herodotus was just the first to apply it”.

This is correct because the rule of uniformitarianism is explained by the preceding sentences.

Block A, B and C are incorrect.

  1. A, C, E

The correct answer is A, C, E.

The paragraph reads as follows:

Herodotus Endeavored to compute the Earth’s age by watching residue stores, however, modern standards for evaluating Earth’s age from geologic procedures emerged from crafted by Steno and Hutton.

Radio isotopic dating, made possible by the discovery of radioactivity, as well as the revelation of atomic fusion, cleared up misconceptions regarding the Earth’s age and the source of the sun’s energy.

Estimates of the Earth’s age from the past were amazingly low in light of what we know today about the rates of geologic procedures, and evaluations and Sun’s age and vitality source.

B is incorrect as Kant is not cited in the article for identifying gaps in the sedimentary record, rather Kant’s view on the energy provided by chemical reactions alone as being insufficient to generate the energy required for the Earth’s existence for more than about a millennium.

D is incorrect as Hutton was also not credited with realizing that sedimentary records were missing.

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