Pronunciation Course II is Now Available!

The second relaunch is here! My pronunciation course Phase II is available for $9.99! In this course, I’ll be covering the following topics.

  • Voiceless and voiced words
  • Initial voiceless and voiced consonants
  • Final voiceless and voiced consonants
  • Grammatical endings
  • Pronouncing the -s/-es endings
  • Pronouncing the -ed Endings

There’s material, documents, and homework at the end of each segment, making this as interactive with you as possible. Phase III will be debuting this week and Phase IV and V are in the works. Enquire today!

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{Patreon Special}TOEFL iBT | Reading | Anglo-saxons

We’re back with another super special! In today’s reading, we’ll be covering Anglo-saxons. Remember, to get the full reading, go to the link down below and get access to my Patreon. Nonetheless, here’s a nice little teaser for you.

[1] In the fifth century AD, Britain was being attacked by the Irish, Pict and Germanic people from southern Denmark and Germany. These invaders were called Saxons. The term Anglo Saxon was developed in the eighth century. It was coined to distinguish between the British (Anglo) and the Germanic people (Saxons). The Roman-Britano leaders defended the land as best they could, but the invaders eventually began to settle into Britain. Irish kingdoms settled in both the west and north of the country. Meanwhile, the Angles, Saxons and Jute tribes took over the east part of Britain.
 

bestmytest

1 Paragraph 1 supports which of the following statements about the word Anglo-Saxon:

  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from two words, meaning British-German.
  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the British term Saxon for invaders.
  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the German word Saxon for the British.
  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the Irish term Saxon for invaders.

Patreon

{Patreon Special} TOEFL iBT Reading | The Navigation Acts

More uploads are scheduled for today! Prepare yourself…..and by the way, I see that that are difficulties within some of the readings so I will either (A) do a response video. Or (B), write the explanations in the comment below the document. Stay tuned in your notifications!

Here’s the first question for all of you who follow me.

[2] The first Navigation Act was passed in 1651. The Act declared that all products grown and produced in Asia, America, and Africa should be transported only in English boats. In addition, the Act included a provision that goods transported into England from Europe should also be carried by English boats only. The second Navigation Act was passed in 1660, forbidding any importation into or exportation out of the British colonies except in English vessels. It also declared that certain products, such as cotton, sugar, and tobacco, could only be transported to England or one of its plantations.

BESTMYTEST

1 Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the first two Navigation Acts?

  • The first two Navigation Acts declared that only England could use goods from the colonies, and also stated that certain goods could be transported to all countries.
  • The first two Navigation Acts declared that only England’s colonies could benefit from the transport of goods from the colonies, and also stated that certain goods could only be exported to England and its plantations.
  • The first two Navigation Acts declared that only English vessels could be used for the transport of goods from the colonies, and also stated that certain goods could only be exported to England and its plantations.
  • The first two Navigation Acts prevented English vessels from being used for the transport of goods from the colonies, and also stated that only certain goods could be exported to England and its plantations.

Patreon

Arsenio’s Business English Podcast | Season 6 | Sales | Investigating Complaints: Reporting to Customers

This is a LONG story in terms of how to deal with complaints, whether it’s in your professional life or personal life. There’s a fine line between constructive criticism, and there is just the ungrateful. Do you often continue doing work with people who have complained before? In my experience here in Thailand, I worked with companies in the outskirts of Bangkok before who had complained about me having a great personality — true story. These companies don’t deserve an amazing trainer like me, and going forward, I established a value system that helps me in choosing companies, clients, gigs.  In today’s podcast, we discuss just that.

Podcast

TOEFL iBT | Listening | Lecture | Astrology

As requested by one of my Patreon students, I decided to make this available to the public by doing a video/podcast response to this specific lecture. I realized that this was one of the longest lecturers I had ever heard and my student had difficulty with comparing notes to the questions that were asked. Now, I love this particular segment because it was very difficult compared to other lecturers, and after hearing some of the listening excerpts on YouTube, I’m afraid that the majority of you will have difficulty if you come across a lengthy lecture on the test. Without further ado, let’s dive into this!

Notes

Astrology is…..

anthropology course

influenced by astrology

Roots from manifestations

asia, south america, modern day

what is astrology — celestial objects, stars, planets, moons, movement and position influence human events

broadest = search for meaning in sky

encompasses astronomy

without it, won’t have modern astronomy

no technological benefits of the skies

development = earliest records 25k years

prehistoric men made diagrams on cave walls

men examine, question, and understand process of natural world

bodies have no effect = not true

moon influences tides and rivers

awareness of this helped men and prepared for annual weather like floods

Predictive tool

ancient babylon

recording planetary movements 2k BC

they kept records for 21 years

2300 BC dated back

observations // not predictions

babylonian astrology was concerned with physical events = politics, earthquakes

position of stars can’t determine fate

gods associated with specific planets, displayed some erratic behavior, meant god was angry

Astronomy other cultures too

Alexnader the great = fundamental of the spread in Asia

Bablyloanian beliefs = greek culture

greek overtook international language

1st century BCE, two astrology, PAST, present, future and other soul and stars

greek culture spread to ancient rome

rome, astrology popular amongst lower orders of society

Cato, farmers danger

2nd century, juvenil, roman women hung on every word

high born astrological bug, tiberius started employing astrologers

intellectual romans said other planets are much further, they can only have a tiny influence compared to moons

ignores affect, parenting, health, medicine, have on other people’s characters and fate

Carnitus, belief in fate denied free will

Same time identical can live in tribes and cultures

Questions

1 What is the lecture mainly about?

  • how ancient astrology has influenced modern astronomy
  • the evolution of astrological beliefs and practices
  • a comparison of Babylonian and Greco-Roman astrology
  • ancient arguments against the power of astrology

2 What is implied about astrologers in ancient Rome?

  • They were more respected if they had Greek origins
  • They had significant influence, particularly over lower class people
  • They still utilized the ancient Babylonian script
  • They made significant contributions to the study of natural science

3 Which of the following practices took place in ancient Babylon? Choose 2 answers.

  • The positions of celestial bodies were extensively recorded
  • Kings communicated directly with the gods in the stars
  • People consulted astrologers to determine their futures
  • Precautions were taken when celestial omens were observed

4 What can be concluded about Cicero and Carneades?

  • Both of them saw good and bad aspects to astrology
  • Cicero had a negative view of astrology, while Carneades had a positive one
  • Both of them disagreed with the arguments put forward by astrologists
  • Cicero saw both good and bad sides to astrology, while Carneades had only a negative opinion

5 According to the professor, when did Astronomy begin to be used as predictive tool?

  • When Alexander conquered asla
  • Ancient Roman times
  • Around 25,000 years when prehistoric man made diagrams depicting lunar cycles on cave walls
  • Ancient Babylonian times

6 Which of the following is true about the development of Astrology?

  • By the 1st century BCE, there was only one strand of astrology concerned with reading about the past, present, and future
  • The earliest records of astronomical cycles dated back to ancient Babylonian times
  • Alexander contributed greatly to the spread of Astrology
  • Babylonian astrology was concerned with how the position of stars could determine a single person’s fate

TOEIC | Incomplete Sentences | Improving Your Knowledge of Prefixes & Suffixes: Tactic Practice

Welcome to another grammar edition of TOEIC! In today’s podcast/video, we’re going to do the full rundown of noun and verb suffixes, a tactic that is needed to get a fine score in Part 5. Also, some exercises and additional task (on my blog) before getting into a 6-question Tactic Practice. With that being said, let’s get into it!

This section will help you familiarize yourself with some of the most common suffix and prefix forms.

Test tactic: Noun & Verb Suffixes

The words below feature some of the most common suffixes use with nouns and verbs. Decide whether they’re a noun or a verb.

  • cooperation
  • criticize
  • partnership
  • department
  • simplify
  • quickness
  • activate
  • celebration
  • security
  • widen
  • assistance
  • realize

Now look at the list of suffixes and mark whether each is a noun or verb suffix.

  • tion/sion
  • en
  • ness
  • (i)fy
  • ship
  • ise/ize
  • ity
  • ate
  • ment
  • ance/ence

Now, for each sentence below, decide if it requires a noun or verb, then choose the best word of the correct type to fill in the blank.

investigation  identify   elevate  repetitiveness  criticize  document  internship   renovate  dependence  soften
  1. The stockholders have called for a(n) ______ to find out where the money went.
  2. Newspapers are starting to ______ the prime minister’s actions.
  3. Doing a (n) _______ is a good way for students to get work experience.
  4. Miller Manufacturing’s _____ on one supplier caused serious problems when that company went bankrupt.
  5. A consultant was hired to ______ the company’s main weaknesses and suggest solutions.
  6. Bill realized he had forgotten to bring a key ______ to the meeting.
  7. The company spent millions to ______ its main office in order to impress its customers.
  8. The sculptor intended to ______ the statue by placing it on a pedestal so that people could see it more easily.
  9. Many people dislike the ______ of working on a factory assembly line.
  10. Cyclists often use special pads to ______ the seat for long-distance rides.

Answers on Next Page

TOEFL iBT | Reading | 1 on 1 Coaching | Time-management & Vocabulary | Minerals & Plants

BOOM! We’re back with the first of its kind! I actually have another one scheduled to upload but not for a few months. Nonetheless, this is a full coaching session from one of my students, and in today’s coaching, I cover three main areas while walking her through a passage: time-management, double-checking vocabulary, and the before/after. There are lots of great techniques that could be used throughout this podcast (down below).

Podcast

MINERALS AND PLANTS

1) Research has shown that certain minerals are required by plants for normal growth and development. The soil is the source of these minerals, which are absorbed by the plant with the water from the soil. Even nitrogen, which is a gas in its elemental state, is normally absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions. Some soils are notoriously deficient in micro nutrients and are therefore unable to support most plant life. So-called serpentine soils, for example, are deficient in calcium, and only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive. In modern agriculture, mineral depletion of soils is a major concern, since harvesting crops interrupts the recycling of nutrients back to the soil.

2) Mineral deficiencies can often be detected by specific symptoms such as chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll resulting in yellow or white leaf tissue), necrosis (isolated dead patches), anthocyanin formation (development of deep red pigmentation of leaves or stem), stunted growth, and development of woody tissue in an herbaceous plant. Soils are most commonly deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen-deficient plants exhibit many of the symptoms just described. Leaves develop chlorosis; stems are short and slender; and anthocyanin discoloration occurs on stems, petioles, and lower leaf surfaces. Phosphorus-deficient plants are often stunted, with leaves turning a characteristic dark green, often with the accumulation of anthocyanin. Typically, older leaves are affected first as the phosphorus is mobilized to young growing tissue. Iron deficiency is characterized by chlorosis between veins in young leaves.

3) Much of the research on nutrient deficiencies is based on growing plants hydroponically, that is, in soilless liquid nutrient solutions. This technique allows researchers to create solutions that selectively omit certain nutrients and then observe the resulting effects on the plants. Hydroponics has applications beyond basic research, since it facilitates the growing of greenhouse vegetables during winter. Aeroponics, a technique in which plants are suspended and the roots misted with a nutrient solution, is another method for growing plants without soil.

4) While mineral deficiencies can limit the growth of plants, an overabundance of certain minerals can be toxic and can also limit growth. Saline soils, which have high concentrations of sodium chloride and other salts, limit plant growth, and research continues to focus on developing salt-tolerant varieties of agricultural crops. Research has focused on the toxic effects of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and aluminum; however, even copper and zinc, which are essential elements, can become toxic in high concentrations. Although most plants cannot survive in these soils, certain plants have the ability to tolerate high levels of these minerals.

5) Scientists have known for some time that certain plants, called hyper accumulators, can concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or greater than normal. A survey of known hyper accumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of choice. Hyper accumulators run the entire range of the plant world. They may be herbs, shrubs, or trees. Many members of the mustard family, spurge family, legume family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.

6) Only recently have investigators considered using these plants to clean up soil and waste sites that have been contaminated by toxic levels of heavy metals—an environmentally friendly approach known as phytoremediation. This scenario begins with the planting of hyperaccumulating species in the target area, such as an abandoned mine or an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff. Toxic minerals would first be absorbed by roots but later relocated to the stem and leaves. A harvest of the shoots would remove the toxic compounds off site to be burned or composted to recover the metal for industrial uses. After several years of cultivation and harvest, the site would be restored at a cost much lower than the price of excavation and reburial, the standard practice for remediation of contaminated soils. For example, in field trials, the plant alpine pennycress removed zinc and cadmium from soils near a zinc smelter, and Indian mustard, native to Pakistan and India, has been effective in reducing levels of selenium salts by 50 percent in contaminated soils.

Directions: Now answer the questions.

PARAGRAPH 1

Research has shown that certain minerals are required by plants for normal growth and development. The soil is the source of these minerals, which are absorbed by the plant with the water from the soil. Even nitrogen, which is a gas in its elemental state, is normally absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions. Some soils are notoriously deficient in micro nutrients and are therefore unable to support most plant life. So-called serpentine soils, for example, are deficient in calcium, and only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive. In modern agriculture, mineral depletion of soils is a major concern, since harvesting crops interrupts the recycling of nutrients back to the soil.

1. According to paragraph 1, what is true of plants that can grow in serpentine soils?

  • They absorb micronutrients unusually well.
  • They require far less calcium than most plants do.
  • They are able to absorb nitrogen in its elemental state.
  • They are typically crops raised for food.

PARAGRAPH 2

Mineral deficiencies can often be detected by specific symptoms such as chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll resulting in yellow or white leaf tissue), necrosis (isolated dead patches), anthocyanin formation (development of deep red pigmentation of leaves or stem), stunted growth, and development of woody tissue in an herbaceous plant. Soils are most commonly deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen-deficient plants exhibit many of the symptoms just described. Leaves develop chlorosis; stems are short and slender; and anthocyanin discoloration occurs on stems, petioles, and lower leaf surfaces. Phosphorus-deficient plants are often stunted, with leaves turning a characteristic dark green, often with the accumulation of anthocyanin. Typically, older leaves are affected first as the phosphorus is mobilized to young growing tissue. Iron deficiency is characterized by chlorosis between veins in young leaves.

  1. The word “exhibit” in the passage is closest in meaning to
  • fight off
  • show
  • cause
  • spread
  1. According to paragraph 2, which of the following symptoms occurs in phosphorus-deficient plants but not in plants deficient in nitrogen or iron?
  • chlorosis on leaves
  • change in leaf pigmentation to a dark shade of green
  • Short, stunted appearance of stems
  • Reddish pigmentation on the leaves or stem
  1. According to paragraph 2, a symptom of iron deficiency is the presence in young leaves of
  • deep red discoloration between the veins
  • white or yellow tissue between the veins
  • dead spots between the veins
  • characteristic dark green veins

PARAGRAPH 3

Much of the research on nutrient deficiencies is based on growing plants hydroponically, that is, in soilless liquid nutrient solutions. This technique allows researchers to create solutions that selectively omit certain nutrients and then observe the resulting effects on the plants. Hydroponics has applications beyond basic research, since it facilitates the growing of greenhouse vegetables during winter. Aeroponics, a technique in which plants are suspended and the roots misted with a nutrient solution, is another method for growing plants without soil.

  1. The word “facilitates” in the passage is closest in meaning to
  • slows down
  • affects
  • makes easier
  • focuses on
  1. According to paragraph 3, what is the advantage of hydroponics for research on nutrient deficiencies in plants?
  • it allows researchers to control what nutrients a plant receives
  • it allows researchers to observe the growth of a large number of plants simultaneously
  • it is possible to directly observe the roots of plants
  • it is unnecessary to keep misting plants with nutrient solutions
  1. The word “suspended” in the passage is closest in meaning to
  • grown
  • protected
  • spread out
  • hung

PARAGRAPH 5

Scientists have known for some time that certain plants, called hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or greater than normal. A survey of known hyperaccumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of choice. Hyperaccumulators run the entire range of the plant world. They may be herbs, shrubs, or trees. Many members of the mustard family, spurge family, legume family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.

8. Why does the author mention “herbs,” “shrubs,” and “trees”?

  • To provide examples of plant types that cannot tolerate high levels of harmful minerals
  • To show why so many plants are hyperaccumulators
  • To help explain why hyperaccumulators can be found in so many different places
  • To emphasize that hyperaccumulators occur in a wide range of plant types

9. The word “afford” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • offer
  • prevent
  • increase
  • remove

PARAGRAPH 6

Only recently have investigators considered using these plants to clean up soil and waste sites that have been contaminated by toxic levels of heavy metals—an environmentally friendly approach known as phytoremediation. Toxic minerals would first be absorbed by roots but later relocated to the stem and leaves. A harvest of the shoots would remove the toxic compounds off site to be burned or composted to recover the metal for industrial uses. After several years of cultivation and harvest, the site would be restored at a cost much lower than the price of excavation and reburial, the standard practice for remediation of contaminated soils. For example, in field trials, the plant alpine pennycress removed zinc and cadmium from soils near a zinc smelter, and Indian mustard, native to Pakistan and India, has been effective in reducing levels of selenium salts by 50 percent in contaminated soils.

10. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 6? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  • Before considering phytoremediation, hyperaccumulating species of plants local to the target area must be identified.
  • The investigation begins with an evaluation of toxic sites in the target area to determine the extent of contamination
  • The first step in phytoremediation is the planting of hyperaccumulating plants in the area to be cleaned up
  • Mines and irrigation ponds can be kept from becoming contaminated by planting hyperaccumulating species in targeted areas

11. It can be inferred from paragraph 6 that compared with standard practices for remediation of contaminated soils, phytoremediation

  • does not allow for the use of the removed minerals for industrial purposes
  • can be faster to implement
  • is equally friendly to the environment
  • is less suitable for soils that need to be used within a short period of time

12. Why does the author mention “Indian mustard”?

  • to warn about possible risks involved in phytoremediation
  • to help illustrate the potential pf phytoremediation
  • to show that hyper accumulating plants grow in many regions of the world
  • to explain how zinc contamination can be reduced

TOEFL iTP | Reading | Answering a Variety of Overview Questions

Welcome back to another TOEFL iTP Reading! In today’s podcast/video, we’re going to be looking over a variety of different overview questions to test you. There are 16 in total with 8 on here and the other 8 will be on my TOEFL iTP Badge, priced at $50 a month with two coaching hours. Make sure you contact me for more information!

Questions

American folk music originated with ordinary people at a time when the rural population was isolated and music was not yet spread by radio, audios, compact disks, or music DVDs. It was transmitted by oral tradition and is noted for its energy, humor, and emotion impact. The major source of early American folk songs was music from the British Isles, but songs from Africa as well as songs of the American Indians have a significant part in its heritage. Later settlers from other countries also contributed songs. In the the nineteenth century, composer Stephen Foster wrote some of the most enduringly popular of all American songs, which soon became part of the folks tradition. Beginning in the 1930’s, Woody Guthrie gained great popularity by adapting traditional melodies and lyrics supplying new ones as well. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, singer-composers such as Pete Seeger, Bob Dylan, and Joan Bae continued this tradition by creating “urban” folk music. Many of these songs dealt with important social issues, such as racial integration and the war in Vietnam.

  1. The primary purpose of this passage is to..
  • trace the development of American folk music
  • explain the oral tradition
  • contrast the styles of folk musicians
  • point out the influence of social issues on “urban” folk music

The answer would be A, trace the development of American folk music. The first sentence outlined its origination. Then it talked about how it was used. It went into the source of American folk songs, talking about Africa and American Indians. Then, settlers began their contribution and went into specifics in regards to Stephen Foster — his songs ultimately becoming park of folk tradition. Woody Guthrie became popular with his contribution to folk shortly after. Other big names continued the tradition by creating urban folk music.

So, in saying that, all of the above details pertained to the development of folk music. Oral tradition was a small detail in the second sentence. Contrasting styles wasn’t mentioned and Bob Dylan’s “urban folk” was a very small part of the concluding sentence at the very end. None of them were the PRIMARY PURPOSE.

Every scientific discipline tends to develop its own special language because it finds ordinary words inadequate, and psychology is no different. The purpose of this special jargon is not to mystify non-psychologists; rather, it allows psychologists to accurately describe the phenomena they are discussing and to communicate with each other effectively. Of course, psychological terminology consists in part of everyday words such as emotion, intelligence, and the motivation, but psychologists use these words somewhat differently. For example, laymen use the term anxiety to mean nervousness or fear, but most psychologists reserve the term to describe a condition produced when one fears events over which one has no control.

2. The main topic of this passage is….

  • effective communication
  • the special language of psychology
  • two definitions of the word anxiety
  • the jargon of science

Gifford Pinchot was the first professionally trained forester in the United States. After he graduated from Yale in 1889, he studied forestry in Europe. In the 1890’s he managed the forest on the Biltmore estate in North Caroline (now Pisgah National Forest) and became the first to practice scientific forestry. Perhaps his most important contribution to conservation was persuading President Theodore Roosevelt to set aside millions of acres in the West as forest reserves. These lands now make up much of the national parks and national forests of the United States. Pinchot became the Chief Forester of the U.S. Forest Service in 1905. Although he held that post for only five years, he established guidelines that set forest policy for decades to come.

3. The passage primarily deals with….

  • Gifford Pinchot’s work on the Biltmore Estate
  • the practice and theory of scientific forestry
  • the origin of national parks and national forests in the United States
  • the contributions Gifford Pinchot made to American forestry

Off-broadway theater developed in New York City in about 1950 as a result of dissatisfaction with conditions on Broadway. Its founders believed that Broadway was overly concerned with producing safe, commercially successful hit plays rather than drama with artistic quality. Off-Broadway producers tried to assist playwrights, directors, and performers who could not find work on Broadway. Off-Broadway theaters were poorly equipped, had limited seating, and provided few conveniences for audiences. But the originality of the scripts, the creativity of the performers, and the low cost of tickets made up for these disadvantages, and off-Broadway theater prospered. However, by the 1960’s, costs began to rise and by the 1970’s, off-Broadway theater was encountering many of the difficulties of Broadway and had lost much of its vitality. With its decline, an experimental movement called off-off-Broadway theater developed.

4. What is the main idea of this passage?

  • After initial success, off-Broadway theater began to decline.
  • Off-Broadway theaters produced many hit commercial plays
  • Theaters on Broadway were not well equipped
  • Off-Broadway plays were highly creative

5. The paragraph that follows this passage most likely deals with

  • the help off-Broadway producers provided directors, playwrights, and performers
  • methods off-Broadway theaters used to cope with rising prices
  • the development of off-off-Broadway theater
  • the decline of Broadway theater

At the time of the first European contact, there were 500 to 700 languages spoken by North American Indians. These were divided into some 60 language families, with no demonstrable genetic relationship among them. Some of these families spread across several of the seven cultural area. The Algonquin family, for instance, contained dozens of languages and occupied a vast territory. Speakers of Algonquin languages included the Algonquins of the Eastern Woodland, the Blackfoots of the Plains, and the Wiyots and Yuroks of California. Other language families, like Zuni family of the Southwest, occupied only a few square miles of area and containued only a single tribal language.

6. What is the main idea of this passage?

  • Each of the cultural areas was dominated by one of the language families
  • The Zuni language is closely related to the Alongquin language
  • There is considerable diversity in the size and the number of languages in language families of the North American Indians.
  • Contact with Europeans had an extraordinary effect on the languages of the Indian tribes of North America.

Other major changes in journalism occurred around this time. In 1846, Richard Hoe invented the steam cylinder rotary press, making it possible to print newspapers faster and cheaper. The development of the telegraph made possible much speedier collection and distribution of news. Also, in 1846, the first wire service was organized. A new type of newspaper appeared around this time, one that was more attuned to the spirit and needs of the new America. Although newspapers continued to cover politics, they came to report more human interest stories and to record the most recent news, which they could not have done before the telegraph. New York papers and those of other norther cities maintained corps of correspondents to go into all parts of the country to cover newsworthy events.

7. The main purpose of the passage is to……

  • present a brief history of American journalism
  • outline certain developments in mid-19th-century journalism
  • explain the importance of the steam cylinder rotary press
  • present some biographical information about Richard Hoe

8. What is the most probable topic of the paragraph preceding this one?

  • other types of rotary presses
  • alternatives to using wire services
  • newspapers that concentrated on politics
  • other developments in journalism

Answers on next page

YouTube

Podcast

TOEFL iBT | Listening | Discussion | Summer Trip

Welcome back to the first-ever edition of TOEFL iBT Lecture! I’ve obviously done the discussions before, but it’s time for the wondrous lectures…and in today’s lecture, we have a summer-trip. Two people discussing details of a trip…but how are you doing to be able to take notes throughout the lecture? Listen to my notes in the podcast (or notes on video) and let’s answer these questions!

Planning trip for children to New York

Concern – transportation — lodging figured out

How will the get there

Budget restrictions? — the less the better

Train, buses, or just flying

Flying most expensive but quickest

Rule that one out

Nervous parents because kids haven’t flown before

Buses are usual and they have taken them alot

train is exciting

parents won’t worry about trains

trains are faster

bus at mercy of traffic

Bus you can stop whenever you want

train won’t allow stopping

kids have to get up and run around a while

How many children — 60

Split them into two groups: choose or assign them. One group take bus, other take train

Questions

  1. Why does the student speak with the event director?
  • to get permission to host an event
  • to ask questions about working in the event direction division
  • to discuss a trip that she’s planning for children
  • to learn more about the various events that happen

2. Which of the following is NOT an option that the student lists for travel?

  • driving personal cars
  • taking the train
  • taking the bus
  • taking an airplane

3. Which of the following is an advantage of taking the bus?

  • the bus might get caught up in traffic
  • the bus can make stops whenever necessary
  • the bus is something exciting that kids are not accustomed to
  • the bus is free

4. What course of action does the student settle on thanks to the event director?

  • the student decides that they will all take the train
  • the student decides that they will all take the bus
  • the student decides that half of the students will take the bus and half will take the train
  • the student decides to cancel the trip and plan something else instead

5. Why does the student think that the option of flying should be ruled out?

  • she knows that many kids come from families that can’t afford expensive means of travel
  • she feels the parents might get anxious because many kids have no experience with flying
  • she believes there are better ways than flying to make use of the trip’s budget
  • she considers flying unnecessary since there’s no rush involved at any point during the trip

Podcast