A nominal clause is a group of words that performance the same function as a noun. They can be the subject or object of a sentence; Example: Families are getting smaller (= subject) // The UN estimates that by 2030 the world will need 50% more food. (= object)

Nominal clauses include clauses which follow that, if/whether, and questions.


We’re back with a special review of something that I had already recovered in the previous season. There’s no harm in reviewing! So, with that being said, more emphasis can be placed on the result of unreal past conditionals using the following inverted construction; had + subject + (not) + past participle.

Had upbringing been taken into account, the importance given to genetics may have been lessened.

Had they not been raised in such an unstable environment, the twins may not have had such propensity for crime.

This can also be a useful structure for commenting on the results of someone else’s research;

The research suggests that had the group received a better education, they wouldn’t have gone on to exhibit criminal tendencies.

Use the prompts to write inverted conditional sentences.

  1. negative influence of her peers / might not develop criminal tendencies

I’d ague that _____________________________________________________________________.

2. Roberts not be labeled a criminal / he not go on to a life of crime

Lebert would argue that __________________________________________________________.

3. subjects raised in a more stable environment / they cause fewer problems at school.

It seems highly likely that _________________________________________________________.

4. they grow up in a more affluent area / far less likely to turn to crime.

This implies that __________________________________________________________________.

5. the study be conducted today / results may be different

Critics argue that __________________________________________________________________.


Arsenio’s ESL Podcast: Season 3 – Episode 14 – Pronunciation Skill – Grammatical Endings Practice

Welcome back to another fresh week and another wonderful podcast for you guys.  Today is about underlining all the words with the -s/-es and -ed endings.  Note: Please don’t look at the blog before listening to this.  First listen, write down the words that you think have the endings, then check the block to confirm.

Another great exercise for you guys.  Write down your answers and get back to me.

  1. The interviewer asked me if I had ever…..
  2. As soon as Silvia gets home from work, she……
  3. Lee moved to Canada ten years ago, but he still……..
  4. Today people communicate with cell phones; twenty-five years ago they…..
  5. When Henry arrived at the hotel, he…….
  6. Max never carries any cash, so he usually…….
  7. Because Gina’s driver’s license has expired, she…….
  8. I didn’t think my rent included utilities, but…….

Additional task

Match the endings down below with the beginnings.

a. sat down and relaxed for a while before taking a shower.

b. finds it difficult to communicate with the natives there.

c. it’s not a problem.  I’ll find a way to pay them.

d. been convicted of a crime.

e. had to go to the department of motor vehicles to renew it.

f. pays with card.

g. communicated by sending mail to one another.

h. hops in the shower and plays with her dog.