TOEFL iBT | Reading | Techniques for Inference & Complete the Table Questions

We’re back with another reading part. In today’s podcast/video/blog, we’re going to discuss another question type that was requested by some TOEFLtakers. Inference questions, which prove to be the most difficult, will be broken down, as well as a detailed “complete the table” section. So, it’s time to dive in!

Complete The Table

“Complete The Table” question requires you to read and understand the whole text. However, unlike the “Complete The Summary” question, instead of choosing major ideas and themes from the text, you need to pick out and categorize minor details. There is no limit on how many answers you can choose, but remember, not all the choices will be used. I will show you an easier way to saving more time in not having to read the entire text.

This question type defers from the “Complete The Summary” question type. You will be categorizing minor details instead of major ideas. 

Let’s look at an example….

[1] A tree is a perennial plant that consists of a long stem, trunk, branches and in most species, leaves. They have evolved their structure to compete for sunlight with other plants. Trees usually live for a long time, up to thousands of years old and they have existed on the planet for 370 million years. A tree has woody tissue and is surrounded by bark that protects the plant. The root of a tree anchors it in place and the branches carry leaves that capture light and process it into sugar by photosynthesis. 

[2] The function of trees in our environment is invaluable. They release oxygen into our atmosphere and remove carbon dioxide, storing carbon in their own tissues. Trees prevent soil erosion by soaking up water in areas with high rainfall. In tropical rainforests and various other regions of the world, trees provide a habitat for a vast number of animal and plant species. Other functions of trees are in the provision of wood for fuel, cooking, heating, construction, paper production and fruit. 

[3] The leaves of trees are formed for photosynthesis. The broad sizes and shapes of deciduous trees attract the light to be converted to energy. Coniferous trees sometime have needles which are adapted to environments with less water, such as frozen regions with a higher latitude and altitude. {B} The thin shape of the needles and position of evergreen branches allow the leaves to shed snow. Broad-leaved trees in temperate zones of the world shed their leaves as days get shorter in the autumn and winter seasons. This is because the leaves are no longer making new chlorophyll through photosynthesis due to less light. The red and yellow pigments of the leaves’ blades become visible, causing the bright orange, red and yellow-colored autumn leaves. The synthesis of auxin – a plant hormone – also stops. Once the production of auxin ceases, the cells at the junction of the twig and the petiole of the leaf weakens and the leaf breaks off and falls on the ground. In regions of the world with more sun exposure, trees may not shed their leaves. 

[4] There are several other reasons that trees shed leaves and twigs. During a drought season, trees often shed about ten percent of their leaves, thus losing less water. Another reason for leaf-fall is when vigorous trees shed excessive leaves to adjust to the summer heat. Moreover, leaves near the base of the tree are more likely to drop off due to lack of sunlight. Another cause is insect-tunnelling of leaf stalks, leaving short, fragile petioles which leads to more leaf-fall. Disease, such as Dutch elm disease or root rot, or injuries to the tree, is another source of leaf-fall. Fungus, such as leaf-spot disease, also causes increased shedding of leaves. Fungi such as anthracene and apple scab defoliate crab apple trees, sycamore, ash, white oak and maple. 

[5] Squirrel activity or twig- girdling insects can also cause clusters of fallen leaves that are attached to short twigs. There are specific tree species, such as poplars, that shed twigs during moisture stress period. The end of the twig will be like a smooth curve. The metallic wood boring beetle prefers red oak and other oak trees. They lay eggs onto twigs. Once hatched, the larvae bore into twigs in a spiral fashion until there are clusters of dead leaves. The longhorn beetle is gray-brown in color. The adult beetles appear at the end of the summer. The female beetle chews the twig, girdling it and laying eggs on it. The twig then withers and dies. The new larvae thrive in the dead twig. The behaviour of these two insects could be another explanation of excessive twig fall.

Complete the table by matching the phrases below

Directions: Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices and match them to the Radiocarbon Dating and Faunal Analysis to which they relate. Some of the answer choices will NOT be used. 

This question is worth 4 points.
Coniferous treesDeciduous trees
    
  • A. Needles are shaped upward to prevent leaf-fall.
  • B. Needles are shaped specifically to allow the shed of snow.
  • C. Broad leaves help to cause a faster rate of photosynthesis.
  • D. Leaves become orange and red due to the increase of the hormone auxin.
  • E. Adapted to regions with higher altitudes due to the then shape of the needles.
  • F. Autumn-colored trees are caused by the increase in yellow, red and orange pigments as chlorophyll drops.
  • G. Leaves are shed in autumn and winter seasons due to less light.

Arsenio, before showing me the answer, can you show me the techniques to answer this question?

Sure! But before we begin, please keep in mind that there is no logical order of steps or any real techniques to help you solve this question. 

Pronunciation Course | Phase III | Word Stress in Numbers

Happy New Years! It’s officially 2021 and we’re back with the follow up from “compound nouns” yesterday. If you’re reading this on Facebook or the blog, know that price changes won’t happen on Patreon; therefore, every badge will have my pronunciation (audio) course. Be sure to tune in!

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{Patreon Special} Pronunciation Course | Phase III | Word Stress in Compound Nouns

Boom! Excited to debut this one today, on the cusp of New Years’. In today’s special pronunciation course, we’re going to talk about word stress in compound nouns. Here’s a snippet of what will be discussed.

Listen for the primary stress in the following words:

Password forgot my password

Deadline met the deadline

Post office the nearest post office

· Note: if the second nouns are made out of the material in the first noun, stress both nouns, but put the primary stress on the second noun (wool coat, cream cheese, plastic bags, paper towels, and apple pie).

Available in all Patreon tiers!

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{Patreon Template} Arsenio’s Business English Podcast | Season 6 | Sales | Customer Objections – Closing

Welcome back to another Patreon Template! With all my podcast episodes, there are templates and additional tasks, works, and exclusive articles on my Patreon Badge. In this specific template, I talk about customer objections and what you should do if they have questions. It’s kind of like what I’ve been through in terms of my own coaching. I realize that if they have questions, I should do a better job clarifying everything. If I don’t, I could lose a potential client. So, you have a listening, template, conversation and details of what to do….all down below in my Business English Podcast Badge!

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{Patreon Special} TOEFL iTP | Grammar | Incomplete or Missing Comparisons

Welcome back to another TOEFL iTP special. In this episode, we’re going to talk about errors that contain comparisons. In both the structure and written expression, you will see these (once or twice) and if you can identify them, that’s +1 score!

You need to understand how sentences compare similar things or concepts and how if they compare two dissimilar things, “those of” is used in place of it. Also, like/alike, unlike/not alike will be discussed.

This episode will debut the 20th of January, but on my TOEFL iTP badge and Early Access (down below), you will get it a month early! Tune in!

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{Patreon Special} TOEFL iTP | Grammar | Items Involving Misplaced Modifiers

So, some of you are thinking “what the hell is a modifier?” Well, it’s a participial phrase or another modifier that comes before the subject, but does not refer to the subject.

Example: Incorrect:Driving down the road, a herd of sheep suddenly crossed the road in front of Liza’s car.

Correct:As Liza was driving down the road, a herd of sheep suddenly crossed the road in front of her.

In today’s podcast, I will discuss present/past participle, appositives, reduced adjective clauses, adjective phrases, and expressions with like or unlike…as misplaced structures. This will be extremely beneficial for a lot of you out there, so just to make a point, this podcast will debut January 6th to the public. The audiocasts and extra work is only available on my TOEFL iTP badge, and this podcast is available on Early Access in the link down below!

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{Patreon Special} Arsenio’s Business English Podcast | Season 6: Episode 13 | How to Set Goals & Skills for 2021

In this episode, I explain the full works of how to set goals by writing them out in a specific way. In addition to that, we’re going to hear an interview that didn’t go well for a woman because she’s not prepared with sub-skills, and we’re also going to discuss what skills you made need to learn to stay relevant in 2021. Here it is!

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IELTS | Writing Task II | Patreon Special | Essay Evaluation #3

Welcome back to another essay evaluation! This is a Patreon Special, so if you would like your essay to be evaluated, reach out to me! In today’s episode, we’re going to focus on the amazing structure my student had provided — but there were some small errors that could be a hindrance in the future if he continues making the same mistakes.

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TOEFL iBT | Integrated Essay | Sea Otters | Practicing your Note-taking

Welcome to the first edition of integrated writing! IN today’s episode, we’re going to read a passage, take notes in regards to the reading passage, and then the listening.  There’s are three phases to this today, and know that today is just the beginning. We’re going to have to do a follow-up to this video, too.

If you’re interested in the follow-up video or 1 on 1 coaching, make sure to reach out to me!

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IELTS | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Speaking Part 3 – Pollution & the Environment

Here’s the last of the three-part series with the now-have-passed Kawal.  So happy to have helped coach her in achieving an amazing 8.0 band in her speaking. If you guys are interested in 1 on 1 coaching, classes, or even the membership site, feel free to reach out to me in the links down below!

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