We’re back! I’ve finally cut up some content for you guys and brought on my first-ever Moroccan! An amazing engineering student who’s full of life and EXCELLENT at speaking. I think the majority of you will benefit from her speaking in the coming days because this is the first of a four-part podcast in speaking questions. With that being said, let’s dive into this!
Welcome back to the next podcast! In today’s podcast, you’re going to hear the actual recording from a speaking question, followed by my student’s response and then my breakdown. If you want the reading portion of the test, make sure you tune into my blog in the link down below!
Having problems with summary questions on TOEFL? In this full episode with one of my students from Egypt, you’ll get a full rundown and hear how she’s able to overcome the issues that many of you have!
“Months ago I did some fantastic online coaching with one of my students, and in it I explained how you can summarize and find keywords in regards to the summary questions. Because there’s so much misinformation out there, even with TST Prep teaching students how to find the answers (not very effective), it could be very difficult as a non-NES speaker when you get conflicting techniques. So, follow us in the podcast down below and with the passages you see down below, too.”
Welcome to another TOEFL iBT Coaching podcast! If you’re seeing this way in advance, consider yourself LUCKY. This is debuting April 13th but being uploaded months before. In today’s podcast, I have a wonderful Filipina nurse who wanted a consultation, so over the next three podcasts, you’re going to hear the question, followed by her response and then my breakdown. Tune in to this speaking question!
Man, after this specific coaching session with two of my Brazilian nurses, I asked them if I could use some of this audio to share with you guys because I honestly believe with the amount of advice given and received in this podcast, it could be life-changing for a lot of you who have difficulty in the speaking question 1. We did 2-3 speaking question 1s per student, along with some sound advice towards the end. One of the nurses had excellent points of encouragement for her friend — and she was also able to identify the areas of need very quickly and fix them within just 20 minutes. Just a PHENOMENAL job. With that being said, let’s get into this jam session!
Boom! We’re back with a tough reading, and I’ll be covering it for you guys! In today’s full reading segment, we have the infamous Earth’s Age write up which is a total kick-ass. Here we go!
 One of the first recorded observers to estimate Earth’s relative age was the Greek historian Herodotus, who lived from approximately 480 B.C. to 425 B.C. He realized that the Nile River Delta was in fact made up of a series of sediment deposits built up as a result of continuous floods. He noted that individual floods deposit only thin layers of sediment, and he was then able to conclude that the Nile Delta had taken thousands of years to build up. More important than Herodotus’s calculations of the Earth’s age, which are in fact trivial in comparison with the actual age of Earth, was the idea that one could estimate ages of geologic features by determining rates of the processes responsible for such features, and that it was possible to assume the rates to be roughly constant over time. Similar applications of this concept were used time and time again in later centuries to estimate the age of the formation of rocks, in particular, layers of sediment that had compressed and cemented to form sedimentary rocks.
 It wasn’t until the 17th century that any further attempts were made to understand clues to Earth’s history through the rock record. Nicolaus Steno (1638–1686) was the first to work out the principles of the progressive depositing of sediment in Tuscany. However, it was the founder of modern geology, James Hutton (1726–1797), who was the first to learn that geologic processes recur naturally, a key insight. Forces associated with subterranean heat cause land to be uplifted into plateaus and mountain ranges. The effects of wind and water then break down the masses of uplifted rock, producing sediment that is transported by water downhill to then form layers in oceans, lakes, or even seashores. With time, the layers then become sedimentary rock. These rocks are then uplifted in the future to form new mountain ranges, which exhibit sedimentary layers (and the remains of life within those layers) of the earlier episodes of erosion and deposition.
 Hutton’s idea thus represents an amazing insight because its discovery was able to unite many individual phenomena and observations into a conceptual picture of Earth’s history. With the further assumption that these geologic processes were generally no more or less vigorous than they are today, Hutton’s examination of sedimentary layers led him to the realization that Earth’s history must be colossal, that geologic time is an abyss and human history a speck by comparison.
 After Hutton, many geologists tried to determine rates of sedimentation so as to estimate the age of Earth from the total length of the sedimentary, or stratigraphic record. The numbers estimated for the age of Earth at the turn of the 20th century were 100 million to 400 million years. These numbers underestimated the actual age by factors of 10 to 50 because much of the sedimentary record is missing in various locations and because there is a long rock sequence that is older than half a billion years that is far less well defined in terms of fossils and less well preserved.
 A variety of other methods used to estimate the Earth’s age fell short, and could be seen as defective determinations of the Sun’s age. German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) recognized that chemical reactions could not supply the tremendous amount of energy flowing from the Sun for more than about a millennium. The age of the Sun based on the Sun’s energy coming from gravitational contraction was discovered by two physicists in the 19th century. Due to the force of gravity, the compression resulting in an object’s collapse must release energy. Ages for Earth were derived that were in the tens of millions of years, much less than the geologic estimates of the time.
 It was the discovery of radioactivity at the end of the 19th century that resulted in finally determining both the Sun’s energy source and the age of Earth. From the discovery of radioactivity came a wave of discoveries leading to radioisotopic dating. This then led to the realization that Earth must be billions of years old, and finally to the discovery of nuclear fusion as an energy source capable of supporting the Sun’s luminosity for that amount of time. By the 1960s, both analyses of meteorites and refinements of solar evolution models came together to settle on an age for the solar system, and hence for Earth, of 4.5 billion years.
1 According to paragraph 2, James Hutton was the first person to
work out standards of the dynamic saving of silt.
understand that geologic processes occur in repeating cycles
show the power of Earth’s warm inner core
comprehend pieces of information to Earth’s history through the stone record.
2 Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
With the further assumption that these geologic processes were generally no more or less vigorous than they are today, Hutton’s examination of sedimentary layers led him to the realization that Earth’s history must be colossal, that geologic time is an abyss and human history a speck by comparison.
Hutton understood that if these geologic procedures have dependably happened at about the same rate as they do today, Earth’s history is tremendously long compared to mankind’s.
Hutton’s idea revealed vast knowledge by bringing together numerous individual questions and ideas into a theoretical picture of Earth’s history
Hutton’s examination of aggregate layers caused him to infer that geologic processes have been by and large the same as they are today throughout Earth’s long history.
Hutton’s examination of clastic layers resulted in a breakthrough, and his decisions about geologic procedures are among the most noteworthy in mankind’s history
3 .As indicated by passage 4, what happened when geologists at the turn of the twentieth century attempted to gauge Earth’s age?
They disregarded Hutton’s discoveries about rates of sedimentation and by doing so their calculations were off by a factor of 10 to 50.
Utilizing the sedimentary record, they were able to figure Earth’s proper age within 100 million to 400 million years.
They didn’t realize that a great part of the sedimentary record is missing and in this way, believed that Earth was substantially younger than it is in reality.
They didn’t effectively ascertain the rates of sedimentation which caused them to incorrectly presume that the age of the Earth is considerably younger than it ought to be.
4 The word ‘defective’ in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to:
5 For what reason is ‘gravitational contraction’ used in the entry?
To demonstrate that inquiries concerning the Sun’s vitality source were as intriguing to early researchers as inquiries regarding Earth’s age
To give prove that Hutton’s thoughts prompted an in material science and stargazing and also in geography
To refer to a strategy for assessing the age of the Sun that was utilized to decide Earth’s age
To clarify why there is such a lot of vitality spilling out of the Sun
6 As indicated by paragraph 5, Immanuel Kant perceived that the Sun’s vitality
was not possible through chemical reactions alone over a long period of time.
originated from powerful pressure resulting from gravity.
was to a great extent the consequence of synthetic responses that occurred over a time of over a thousand years.
was important to fuel the greater part of the concoction responses on Earth
7 As indicated by passage 6, which of the following isn’t valid about researchers latest estimate of Earth’s age?
It depends on data taken from the examination of shooting stars.
It is shockingly similar to estimates from the nineteenth century.
It is affirmed by sun based development models.
It puts the period of Earth at around 4 5 billion years.
8 Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 6 about the formation of the solar system?
The Sun was already billions of years old when the planets were formed.
The planets closest to the Sun formed first.
Meteorites entered the solar system sometime after the planets were formed.
All parts of the solar system formed at approximately the same time.
9 Examine the four █ in the selection below and indicate at which block the following sentence could be inserted into the passage:
This thought came to be known as the rule of uniformitarianism, and Herodotus was just the first to apply it.
One of the first recorded observers to estimate Earth’s relative age was the Greek historian Herodotus, who lived from approximately 480 B.C. to 425 B.C. █ [A] He realized that the Nile River Delta was in fact made up of a series of sediment deposits built up as a result of continuous floods. █ [B] He noted that individual floods deposit only thin layers of sediment, and he was then able to conclude that the Nile Delta had taken thousands of years to build up. █ [C] More important than Herodotus’s calculations of the Earth’s age, which are in fact trivial in comparison with the actual age of Earth, was the idea that one could estimate ages of geologic features by determining rates of the processes responsible for such features, and that it was possible to assume the rates to be roughly constant over time. █ [D] Similar applications of this concept were to be used time and time again in later centuries to estimate the age of the formation of rocks, in particular, of layers of sediment that had compressed and cemented to form sedimentary rocks..
10 Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Deciding the period of Earth has been a troublesome issue ever of.
A.Herodotus endeavored to compute Earth’s age by watching residue stores, however, modem standards for evaluating Earth’s age from geologic procedures emerged from crafted by Steno and Hutton.
B.Gaps in the sedimentary record started to be perceived by Kant and were later clarified by physicists contemplating the amount of energy provided by the Sun.
C.Radio isotopic dating, made possible by the discovery of radioactivity, as well as the revelation of atomic fusion, cleared up misconceptions regarding as to Earth’s age and the source of the sun’s energy.
D. Hutton portrayed the impacts of wind and water on masses of inspired shake and was the first to propose that a significant part of the sedimentary record was missing because of disintegration.
E. Estimates of Earth’s age from the past were amazingly low in light of what we know today about the rates of geologic procedures, and evaluations of the Sun’s age and vitality source.
F. In the 1960s researchers moved from the investigation of shooting stars to refinements of sun-based advancement models and decided the age of the nearby planetary group to be no less than a billion years.
Welcome back to another TOEFL iBT Speaking! In today’s podcast/video, we’re going to be discussing the note-taking (as usual), as well as constructing your body of work (introduction, body paragraphs, linkers, etc). This is one of the harder ones, so understand that if you do what’s hard, the test will be easy. If you do what’s easy, the test will be hard! Let’s go!
Insects make sounds that carry messages to other insects for different purposes
2) communicate for food resources
Pupil stage following larvae and adulthood – inactive and unable to move
Susceptible to attacks by predators
Make a sound to alert parents when predators are near
taking them to different place or fighting the predator
very common (alert
2) Communication during food searches
insects feed on leaves of trees
searching for new source of fresh new leaves
current resource old = sound to to look fo rnew leaves
once they find, they will make a sound to communicate its location
The lecture is about insects and the reasons behind why they make sounds and the different purposes behind this type of communication.
He gives two explanations to why they make sounds.
The first explanation is alert.
And the second is to communicate during food searches.
The reason behind why they need to alert one another is the simple fact that
Welcome to the first-ever TOEFL iBT Reading section! If you guys are reading this on my blog, the podcast and video are down below. If you’re reading this on Spotify, thank you so much for supporting my podcast! If you’re reading this on Facebook, welcome to the live show! In today’s episode, we’re going to go over the 2 first types of reading questions on TOEFL iBT and how to navigate your way through them. I know quite a few of you have difficulty with specific ones, so I’ll cover all of them individually. Let’s kick this off.
A Reference question is the type of reading question that will take you less than 30 seconds to read both the question and all the options. Also, this is probably the easiest TOEFL reading question type. Especially if you follow the strategies from this lesson, you will almost always get the question right!
Let’s look at an example:
 Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Islands were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus the seed’s chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore.
The word “This” in paragraph 2 refers to:
the spread of ferns and mosses in Hawaii
the creation of the Hawaiian Islands
the evolution of ferns
the development of plants that produce seeds
As you can see, in a reference question, you will see a word, usually a pronoun highlighted in the passage. You are asked what the highlighted word refers to. If it’s a pronoun then you need to identify what word the pronoun is replacing.
Here are highlighted words you might be asked about:
Subject pronoun: it, they
Object pronoun: it, them
Demonstrative pronoun: these, those, this, that
Possessive adjectives: its, their
Other reference words: the former, the latter, one, ones, another, other, others
Now, it is important to remember that you don’t need a full understanding of the passage in order to solve this question type. You just need to study the context surrounding the word. Usually, you just read the sentence where the highlighted word is mentioned, and then read a few sentences that come before it.
Next, you need to analyze the sentence structure and find out the answer.
The “Complete The Summary” question is one of the two question types that are different from the usual multiple choice questions we’ve dealt with, so far. This question type requires you to choose three correct answers, not just one. It is also important to know that in this question, sometimes there are more than three correct answers, but you need to choose the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.
This question type is normally the last question you’ll answer per reading passage.
Let me get this straight. Even though an answer choice is found and expresses an idea in the passage, it is incorrect because it does not express the most important idea?
Yes! That’s exactly right!
So what you need to do is determine if the answer choice is a main idea vs a detail or displaying wrong information.
If an answer choice is a main idea, the answer choice restates the main idea of a paragraph or multiple paragraphs. That’s a good choice. In TOEFL reading passages, the main idea of a paragraph is usually found in the first two sentences of the paragraph. The remaining sentences are most likely supporting details. However, sometimes the first two sentences can be vague, so in this case, you’ll need to continue reading the next couple sentences to understand the main idea.
If the answer choice is a detail, it’ll restate a minor point mentioned in a paragraph. Even though it is correct information, it’s not a good choice.
If the answer choice describes content that is not found in the reading or is wrong according to the reading, then of course, eliminate it.
If you want to read the rest of the document, tune into my Patreon Badge (TOEFL iBT) down below or inquire about it today!
Welcome back to another TOEFL iTP reading! I see my blog exploding in so many ways, along with my YouTube videos and podcasts…so I’m doubling down on my blogs, videos, and podcasts with TOEFL iTP. So, today is the susceptibility to catching colds! Here’s the reading and questions down below.
Another critical factor that plays a part in susceptibility to colds is age. A study done by the University of Michigan School of Public Health revealed particulars that seem to hold true for the general population. Infants are the most cold-ridden group, averaging more than six colds in their first year. Boys have more colds than girls up to age three. After the age of three, girls are more susceptible than boys, and teenage girls average three colds a year to boys’ two.
The general incidence of colds continues to decline into maturity. Elderly people who are in good health have as few as one or two colds annually one exception is found among people in their twenties, especially women, who show a rise in cold infections, because people in this age group are most likely to have young children. Adult who delay having children until their thirties and forties experience the same sudden increase in cold infections.
The study also found that economics plays an important role. As income increases, the frequency at which colds are reported in the family decreases. Families with the lowest income suffer about a third more colds than families at the upper end. Lower income generally forces people to live in more cramped quarters than those typically occupied by wealthier people, and crowding increases the opportunities for the cold virus to travel from person to person. Low income may also adversely influence diet. The degree to which poor nutrition affects susceptibility to colds is not yet clearly established, but an inadequate diet is suspected of lowering resistance generally.
Bruce Rogers pbt toefl
The paragraph that precedes this passage most probably deals with
minor diseases other than colds
the recommended treatment of colds
a factor that affects susceptibility to colds
methods of preventing colds among elderly people
2. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “particulars“?
3. What does the author claim about the study discussed in the passage?
it contains many inconsistencies
it specialized in children
it contradicts the results of earlier studies in the field
its results apparently are relevant for the population as a whole.
4. It may be inferred from the passage that which of the following groups of people is most likely to catch colds?
5. There is information in the second paragraph of the passage to support which of the following conclusions?
men are more susceptible to colds than women
children infect their parents with colds
people who live in a cold climate have more colds than those who live in a warm one
people who don’t have children are more susceptible to colds than those who do
6. The phrase “people in this age group”
people in their twenties
people in their thirties and forties
7. The author’s main purpose in writing the last paragraph of the passage was to
explain how cold viruses are transmitted
prove that a poor diet causes colds
discuss the relationship between income and frequency of colds
discuss the distribution of income among the people in the study
8. The word “cramped” means…
9. The author’s tone in this passage could best be described as