TOEFL iTP | Written Expression | Wrong Choice of Another or Other

We’re back with another fantastic blog! As stated in previous podcasts/blogs, my structure course will be coming out on June 1st! Book your calendar! I’ve set the deadline so you better get ready! This course will be priced at $50 and have between 3-6 hours’ worth of content. If you would like to wait until the Written Expression, the combo course will be $80. With these two courses, you’ll be guaranteed a phenomenal score on TOEFL iTP’s Structure & Written Expression.

Nonetheless, here’s another great blog on Another and Other.

AnotherOther
Used as an adjectiveAnother + singular
(Have another sandwich.)
Other + plural noun
(I wonder if there is life on other planets)
Determiner + other + noun
(There may be life on some other planets)
Used as a pronounAnother
(Thanks. I’ll have another.)
Determiner + other
(“I have one book.”
“I have the other.”)

Another means “one more, an additional one.” It can be used as an adjective before a singular noun or alone as a pronoun.

He needs another piece of paper.

I have one class in that building, and another in the building across the yard.

Other is used as an adjective before a plural noun. It is also used as an adjective before a singular noun when preceded by a determiner such as the, some, any, one, or no. It can also be used alone as a pronoun when preceded by a determiner.

There are other matters I’d like to discuss with you.

One of the books was a novel; the other was a collection of essays.

There’s no other place I’d rather visit.

Sample Items

Willa Cather is known for My Antonia and another novels of the American frontier.

An understudy is an actor who can substitute for other actor in case of an emergency.

Podcast

{Patreon Special} Arsenio’s Business English Podcast | Season 6: Episode 37 | Is The Internet Bad?

Because of big tech companies and social media giants, all of which are clamping down on disinformation, older generations are pointing fingers at why the internet is so bad. Conspiracy theory-pushing YouTube channels have a free-flowing cesspool of comments stating, “I got off social media 3 months ago; best decision I’ve ever made.” Yet, you’re still on social media, on YouTube, commenting and sharing your opinion?

There are two sides of a talisman that you must pick up every day — PMA and NMA. One is being positive and the other one is being negative. The ample amount of opportunity that’s readily available to everyone who knows a specific skill online — is something we’ve never had in our past.

If you could fully utilize and use the inter, social media platforms and other pieces of technology to help better humanity, then you wouldn’t be part of the pity party.

Patreon

TOEFL iTP | Written Expression | Wrong Choice of So, Such, Too & As

We’re back with a wonderful special! In today’s podcast/video/blog, I’ll be diving into the wrong choices of the words mentioned above! Super excited about this one because it will be going live first on my IGTV. So, make sure you’re following me in the link down below!

Instagram

The words so, such, and too are used in the following patterns:

so + adjective + that clause

These boxes are so heavy that we can’t lift them.

(So is also used with many….that and much….that.)

There were so many people in the auditorium that we could barely get in the front door.

Such + adjective + noun phrase + that clause

It was such a pretty view that he took a photograph.

Too + adjective + infinitive

It’s too cold to go swimming today.

Notice that so and such are both followed by that clauses, but too is followed by an infinitive.

The words as and so are also sometimes confused:

Jane did so well as I did on the economics exam. (INCORRECT)

The coffee was as hot that I couldn’t drink it. (INCORRECT

Check podcast and YouTube for explanation!

Podcast

YouTube

  1. The sun is so bright to look at directly.

Correct pattern too + adjective + infinitive

2. In much of Alaska, the growing season is as short that crops can’t be raised.

The correct pattern is so + adjective + that clause.

3. The giant squid is so an elusive animal that at one time it was believed to be purely mythical.

Before an adjective + noun + that clause, the word such should be used.

4. The mineral grains in basalt are so much small that they cannot be seen with the unaided eye.

The phrase should read so small rather than so much small.

TOEFL iBT | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Question 4 | Forest Fires

Welcome to the last edition of this 4-part series, and in today’s podcast, we’re going to cover the part IV speaking question.

In part IV, you’re going to have to formulate an opening introduction before getting into specific details. This will provide you some guidance before getting into the two main examples/reasons. If you don’t, you may be lost. So, what you’re going to do is listen, take notes to the audio, and compare what you had taken with what the student had said before listening to my critique.

TOEFL iBT | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Question 3 | Group Think

Another fantastic podcast with some GREAT advice in regards to repetition and a few other things. Groupthink is one of the part 3 questions that is pretty difficult, so I wanted to see what details my student (during the consultation) would pick out of it. The details she got made up about 20% of what was said, and it was contradictory to what was said. Here’s some advice on how to stay away from potentially contradicting information.

TOEFL iBT | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Question 1 | Do You Prefer to Study Alone?

Welcome to another TOEFL iBT Coaching podcast! If you’re seeing this way in advance, consider yourself LUCKY. This is debuting April 13th but being uploaded months before. In today’s podcast, I have a wonderful Filipina nurse who wanted a consultation, so over the next three podcasts, you’re going to hear the question, followed by her response and then my breakdown. Tune in to this speaking question!

TOEFL iBT | Speaking Part 1 | Group Coaching | Full Session

Man, after this specific coaching session with two of my Brazilian nurses, I asked them if I could use some of this audio to share with you guys because I honestly believe with the amount of advice given and received in this podcast, it could be life-changing for a lot of you who have difficulty in the speaking question 1. We did 2-3 speaking question 1s per student, along with some sound advice towards the end. One of the nurses had excellent points of encouragement for her friend — and she was also able to identify the areas of need very quickly and fix them within just 20 minutes. Just a PHENOMENAL job. With that being said, let’s get into this jam session!

TOEFL iBT | Reading | Anglo-Saxons

We’re back with a TOEFL iBT reading! In this blog, you’ll have a set of questions to answer followed by the answers which will be on page 2. In the video, I will break down 5 questions and show you how NOT to overanalyze. Although this could be difficult at first glance, by watching me break it down, you will gain confidence in answer the question. So, without further ado, let’s get into it!

[1] In the fifth century AD, Britain was being attacked by the Irish, Pict and Germanic people from southern Denmark and Germany. These invaders were called Saxons. The term Anglo Saxon was developed in the eighth century. It was coined to distinguish between the British (Anglo) and the Germanic people (Saxons). The Roman-Britano leaders defended the land as best they could, but the invaders eventually began to settle into Britain. Irish kingdoms settled in both the west and north of the country. Meanwhile, the Angles, Saxons and Jute tribes took over the east part of Britain.
 

[2] Most of the information we have gathered about the Anglo-Saxons has been collected from cemeteries where personal possessions were placed. A graveyard in Suffolk is considered to be a royal cemetery of the East Anglian kings. A large oak ship was discovered here along with objects suggesting that the Swedes settled in this area.
 

[3] Although the Christian church suffered greatly from the invasions, it survived in the areas of Roman Britain that were not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons. Two missionaries came out of that church: Saint Nina from Scotland and Saint Patrick. Nina founded a church at Whithorn. Patrick is thought to have come from Wales where he was captured by Irish raiders. Having escaped home from slavery, he returned again to Ireland where he introduced Christianity to the Irish population. It is thought that he was buried in County Down in the late fifth century. St Columba was a later missionary who founded Derry and Durrow in Ireland. In 565 AD, he founded the monastery of Iona on an island west of the Isle of Mull in Scotland.
 

[4] One important source of sixth to eighth-century British history is the ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’, written by a monk, Venerable Bede. In his work, he explains how Pope Gregory (pope from 590 to 604 AD) sent a missionary called Augustine to England to found major churches in London and York. Augustine met Æthelberht, king of Kent, in 597AD who gave him land in Canterbury to build a church. Thus, Canterbury became the main center for English Christianity. Æthelberht and Edwin, king of Northumbria, both converted to Christianity.
 

[5] Britain was now divided into the kingdoms of Diera (Yorkshire), Bernicia (north)South Saxons (Sussex), East Angles (East Anglia), West Saxons (Wessex) and Mercians in the Midlands. Cornwall, Devon and Wales were independent and in Northern Ireland, there were smaller kingdoms. Some British kingdoms remained independent, including Cornwall and Devon in the south west, Gwynedd and Powys in modern Wales, and Strathclyde, in what is now the region of Glasgow.
 

[6] At this time, the Irish missionaries founded churches along the west coast of Scotland. Converts remained loyal to the Iona church, founded by Columba. However, a disagreement over the Christian calendar arose. King Oswiu decided for the Roman calendar over the Ionan calendar. From that point, Irish influence on the England church began to wane. Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury was appointed in 668 AD by Pope Vitalian. Theodore introduced Greek and established new dioceses.
 

[7] Irish and English missionaries continued to travel and convert in France, Italy and Germany. Great English missionaries included Egbert and Boniface who reorganized the church in Germany and Bavaria. The Northumbrian empire began to decline after 685AD. However, Northumbria remained a cultural crossing point between Rome, England and Ireland. Sculptor, poetry and a library of works remains from Northumbrian culture.

1 Paragraph 1 supports which of the following statements about the word Anglo-Saxon:

  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from two words, meaning British-German.
  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the British term Saxon for invaders.
  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the German word Saxon for the British.
  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the Irish term Saxon for invaders.

2 According to paragraph 3, all of the following statements are true about the work of missionaries, EXCEPT:

  • Saint Nina was a Scottish missionary.
  • Saint Patrick was an Irish missionary who converted the people of Northern Ireland.
  • Saint Patrick may have been buried in Country Down in the fifth century.
  • Saint Columba established the Ionan monastery.

3 Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about Christianity?

  • Christianity disappeared from Britain after the invasions.
  • Christianity did not survive in the areas not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons.
  • Christianity survived only in the areas not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons, but moved to Iona in 565 AD.
  • Christianity survived only in the areas not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons, and important missionaries came from those areas.

4 In paragraph 4, why does the author mention the ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’, written by a monk, Venerable Bede?

  • Because it sheds light on the invasions of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain.
  • Because it sheds light on the history of Britain between the sixth and eight centuries.
  • Because it explains the work of the missionaries.
  • Because it describes the rise of the Canterbury church.

5 According to paragraph 5, what happened in Britain after 597 AD?

  • Britain was divided into several kingdoms, all dependent on one another.
  • Britain was divided into several kingdoms, all independent.
  • Britain was divided into several kingdoms and some remained independent.
  • Britain was united into one kingdom.

6 The word ‘decline’ in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to:

  • Increase
  • Decrease
  • Get worse
  • Improve

7 Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the following sentence?

However, a disagreement over Christian calendar arose.

  • But a conflict emerged related to the Christian calendar.
  • But a conflict started over the Christmas calendar.
  • However, an agreement over the Christian calendar was impossible.
  • However, a dispute over the Christian calendar raged.

8 Which of the following is true, according to the passage?

  • The Christian church in Britain faced many challenges between the sixth and eighth centuries, but disintegrated after this time.
  • The Christian church worldwide faced many challenges between the sixth and eighth centuries, but continued to thrive.
  • The Christian church in Britain had many achievements between the sixth and eighth centuries, but disintegrated after this time.
  • The Christian church in Britain faced many challenges between the sixth and eighth centuries, but continued to thrive.

9 Examine the four █ in the selection below and indicate at which block the following sentence could be inserted into the passage:


Ionan followers became more isolated from the king whose allegiance was with the Roman church.

█ [A] However, a disagreement over the Christian calendar arose. █ [B] King Oswiu decided for the Roman calendar over the Ionan calendar. █ [C] From that point, Irish influence on the England church began to wane. █ [D] .

  • [A]
  • [B]
  • [C]
  • [D]

10Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

One important source of sixth to eighth century British history is the ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’, written by a monk, Venerable Bede.

  •  
  •  
  •  
  • A.The ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’ by Venerable Bede is the most important book in British history.
  • B.Bede’s work sheds important light on British history between the sixth and eighth centuries.
  • C.Augustine was sent by the pope to establish new churches in Britain.
  • D.Because of his conversion to Christianity, King Æthelberht agreed to give Augustine the land for the church.
  • E.Augustine established the Canterbury church which became the hub of English Christianity.
  • F.The Canterbury Church became the seat of the British Monarchy.

Answers on next page!

TOEFL iTP | Reading – Intermediate | Algae

Welcome back to another super special! Very sorry to all my TOEFL iTPers out there, but I’ve been focusing heavily on iBT which is a good 30-50% of what you would see on your reading test. Good practice on those blogs, too! Nonetheless, what we have here today is an intermediate-level reading passage and I’ll make it into a video/podcast, too, so look down below for the links!

TOEFL iTP Pre-Sale course is available, too, for 50% off (priced at $27 for the Structure which will debut June 1st). You can buy today and wait for the launch at the beginning of next month! 15 full lessons and 3-4 micro lessons for each one! Course is Here

Algae is a primitive form of life, a single-celled or simple multiple-celled organism that is able to conduct the process of photosynthesis. It is generally found in water but can also be found elsewhere, growing on such surfaces as rocks or trees. The various types of algae are classified according to their pigmentation, or coloration.

Blue-green algae, or Cyanophyta, can grow at very high temperatures and under high-intensity light. This is a microscopic type of algae, and some species consist of only one cell. Blue-gree algae are the oldest form of life with photosynthetic capabilities and fossilized remains of this type of algae more than 3.4 billion years old have been found in parts of Africa.

Green algae, or Chlorophyta, is generally found in freshwater. It reproduces on the surfaces of enclosed bodies of water such as ponds or lakes and has the appearance of a fuzzy green coating on the water. In large quantities, this type of algae may reproduce enough to give a green color to an entire lake.

Brown algae, or Phaeophyta, grows in shallow, temperate water. This type of algae is the largest in size and is most recognizable as a type of seaweed; kelp is a type of brown algae that has grown to lengths of up to 200 feet. Its long stalks can be enmeshed on the ocean floor, or it can float freely on the ocean’s surface.

Red algae, or Rhodophyta, is a small, delicate organism found in the deep waters of the subtropics, where it often grows with coral. This type of algae has an essential role in the formation of coral reefs: it secrets lime from the seawater to foster the formation of limestone deposits.

Longman
  1. What is the author’s main purpose?
  • to show what color algae is
  • to differentiate the various classifications of algae
  • to describe where algae is found
  • to clarify the appearance of the different types of algae

2. Which of the following is NOT true about algae?

  • all types have only one cell
  • it can be found out of water
  • it can use photosynthesis
  • it is not a relatively new form of life

3. the word “pigmentation” in line 4 means

  • size
  • shape
  • composition
  • color

4. The word “microscopic” in line 6 is closest in meaning to

  • mechanical
  • tiny
  • visual
  • bacterial

5. Algae remnants found in Africa are

  • still flourishing
  • photogenic
  • extremely old
  • red in color

6. Green algae is generally found

  • on the ocean floor
  • on top of the water
  • throughout ponds and lakes
  • surrounding enclosed bodies of water

7. The word “coating” in line 10 could best be replaced by

  • clothing
  • covering
  • warmth
  • sweater

8. Brown algae would most likely be found

  • on trees
  • near green algae
  • on rocks
  • in the ocean

9. According to the passage, red algae is

  • study
  • huge
  • fragile
  • found in shallow water

10. it can be inferred from the passage that limestone deposits serve as the basis of

  • coral reefs
  • red algae
  • subtropical seawater
  • secret passages

11. How is the information in the paragraph organized

  • various details supporting a theory are explored
  • various classifications of a specific life form are described
  • various stages of the chronological development of a life form are presented
  • various elements that compose a certain life form are outlined

12. This passage would most probably be assigned reading in a course on

  • chemistry
  • physics
  • botany
  • zoology

Answers on page 2

Podcast – Coming soon

YouTube – Coming Soon

TOEFL iBT | Reading | Techniques for Complete The Summary & Reference Questions

Welcome to the first-ever TOEFL iBT Reading section! If you guys are reading this on my blog, the podcast and video are down below. If you’re reading this on Spotify, thank you so much for supporting my podcast! If you’re reading this on Facebook, welcome to the live show! In today’s episode, we’re going to go over the 2 first types of reading questions on TOEFL iBT and how to navigate your way through them. I know quite a few of you have difficulty with specific ones, so I’ll cover all of them individually. Let’s kick this off.

Reference Questions

A Reference question is the type of reading question that will take you less than 30 seconds to read both the question and all the options. Also, this is probably the easiest TOEFL reading question type. Especially if you follow the strategies from this lesson, you will almost always get the question right! 

Let’s look at an example:

[2] Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Islands were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus the seed’s chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore.


The word “This” in paragraph 2 refers to: 

  1. the spread of ferns and mosses in Hawaii
  2. the creation of the Hawaiian Islands
  3. the evolution of ferns
  4. the development of plants that produce seeds


As you can see, in a reference question, you will see a word, usually a pronoun highlighted in the passage. You are asked what the highlighted word refers to. If it’s a pronoun then you need to identify what word the pronoun is replacing. 

Here are highlighted words you might be asked about:

  1. Subject pronoun: it, they
  2. Object pronoun: it, them
  3. Demonstrative pronoun: these, those, this, that
  4. Possessive adjectives: its, their
  5. Other reference words: the former, the latter, one, ones, another, other, others


Now, it is important to remember that you don’t need a full understanding of the passage in order to solve this question type. You just need to study the context surrounding the word. Usually, you just read the sentence where the highlighted word is mentioned, and then read a few sentences that come before it. 

Next, you need to analyze the sentence structure and find out the answer. 

Usually, you will see two structure types:

  1. Two sentences separated by a period
  2. One sentence separated by a comma