TOEFL iBT | Reading | Anglo-Saxons

We’re back with a TOEFL iBT reading! In this blog, you’ll have a set of questions to answer followed by the answers which will be on page 2. In the video, I will break down 5 questions and show you how NOT to overanalyze. Although this could be difficult at first glance, by watching me break it down, you will gain confidence in answer the question. So, without further ado, let’s get into it!

[1] In the fifth century AD, Britain was being attacked by the Irish, Pict and Germanic people from southern Denmark and Germany. These invaders were called Saxons. The term Anglo Saxon was developed in the eighth century. It was coined to distinguish between the British (Anglo) and the Germanic people (Saxons). The Roman-Britano leaders defended the land as best they could, but the invaders eventually began to settle into Britain. Irish kingdoms settled in both the west and north of the country. Meanwhile, the Angles, Saxons and Jute tribes took over the east part of Britain.

[2] Most of the information we have gathered about the Anglo-Saxons has been collected from cemeteries where personal possessions were placed. A graveyard in Suffolk is considered to be a royal cemetery of the East Anglian kings. A large oak ship was discovered here along with objects suggesting that the Swedes settled in this area.

[3] Although the Christian church suffered greatly from the invasions, it survived in the areas of Roman Britain that were not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons. Two missionaries came out of that church: Saint Nina from Scotland and Saint Patrick. Nina founded a church at Whithorn. Patrick is thought to have come from Wales where he was captured by Irish raiders. Having escaped home from slavery, he returned again to Ireland where he introduced Christianity to the Irish population. It is thought that he was buried in County Down in the late fifth century. St Columba was a later missionary who founded Derry and Durrow in Ireland. In 565 AD, he founded the monastery of Iona on an island west of the Isle of Mull in Scotland.

[4] One important source of sixth to eighth-century British history is the ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’, written by a monk, Venerable Bede. In his work, he explains how Pope Gregory (pope from 590 to 604 AD) sent a missionary called Augustine to England to found major churches in London and York. Augustine met Æthelberht, king of Kent, in 597AD who gave him land in Canterbury to build a church. Thus, Canterbury became the main center for English Christianity. Æthelberht and Edwin, king of Northumbria, both converted to Christianity.

[5] Britain was now divided into the kingdoms of Diera (Yorkshire), Bernicia (north)South Saxons (Sussex), East Angles (East Anglia), West Saxons (Wessex) and Mercians in the Midlands. Cornwall, Devon and Wales were independent and in Northern Ireland, there were smaller kingdoms. Some British kingdoms remained independent, including Cornwall and Devon in the south west, Gwynedd and Powys in modern Wales, and Strathclyde, in what is now the region of Glasgow.

[6] At this time, the Irish missionaries founded churches along the west coast of Scotland. Converts remained loyal to the Iona church, founded by Columba. However, a disagreement over the Christian calendar arose. King Oswiu decided for the Roman calendar over the Ionan calendar. From that point, Irish influence on the England church began to wane. Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury was appointed in 668 AD by Pope Vitalian. Theodore introduced Greek and established new dioceses.

[7] Irish and English missionaries continued to travel and convert in France, Italy and Germany. Great English missionaries included Egbert and Boniface who reorganized the church in Germany and Bavaria. The Northumbrian empire began to decline after 685AD. However, Northumbria remained a cultural crossing point between Rome, England and Ireland. Sculptor, poetry and a library of works remains from Northumbrian culture.

1 Paragraph 1 supports which of the following statements about the word Anglo-Saxon:

  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from two words, meaning British-German.
  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the British term Saxon for invaders.
  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the German word Saxon for the British.
  • The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the Irish term Saxon for invaders.

2 According to paragraph 3, all of the following statements are true about the work of missionaries, EXCEPT:

  • Saint Nina was a Scottish missionary.
  • Saint Patrick was an Irish missionary who converted the people of Northern Ireland.
  • Saint Patrick may have been buried in Country Down in the fifth century.
  • Saint Columba established the Ionan monastery.

3 Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about Christianity?

  • Christianity disappeared from Britain after the invasions.
  • Christianity did not survive in the areas not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons.
  • Christianity survived only in the areas not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons, but moved to Iona in 565 AD.
  • Christianity survived only in the areas not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons, and important missionaries came from those areas.

4 In paragraph 4, why does the author mention the ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’, written by a monk, Venerable Bede?

  • Because it sheds light on the invasions of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain.
  • Because it sheds light on the history of Britain between the sixth and eight centuries.
  • Because it explains the work of the missionaries.
  • Because it describes the rise of the Canterbury church.

5 According to paragraph 5, what happened in Britain after 597 AD?

  • Britain was divided into several kingdoms, all dependent on one another.
  • Britain was divided into several kingdoms, all independent.
  • Britain was divided into several kingdoms and some remained independent.
  • Britain was united into one kingdom.

6 The word ‘decline’ in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to:

  • Increase
  • Decrease
  • Get worse
  • Improve

7 Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the following sentence?

However, a disagreement over Christian calendar arose.

  • But a conflict emerged related to the Christian calendar.
  • But a conflict started over the Christmas calendar.
  • However, an agreement over the Christian calendar was impossible.
  • However, a dispute over the Christian calendar raged.

8 Which of the following is true, according to the passage?

  • The Christian church in Britain faced many challenges between the sixth and eighth centuries, but disintegrated after this time.
  • The Christian church worldwide faced many challenges between the sixth and eighth centuries, but continued to thrive.
  • The Christian church in Britain had many achievements between the sixth and eighth centuries, but disintegrated after this time.
  • The Christian church in Britain faced many challenges between the sixth and eighth centuries, but continued to thrive.

9 Examine the four █ in the selection below and indicate at which block the following sentence could be inserted into the passage:

Ionan followers became more isolated from the king whose allegiance was with the Roman church.

█ [A] However, a disagreement over the Christian calendar arose. █ [B] King Oswiu decided for the Roman calendar over the Ionan calendar. █ [C] From that point, Irish influence on the England church began to wane. █ [D] .

  • [A]
  • [B]
  • [C]
  • [D]

10Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

One important source of sixth to eighth century British history is the ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’, written by a monk, Venerable Bede.

  • A.The ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’ by Venerable Bede is the most important book in British history.
  • B.Bede’s work sheds important light on British history between the sixth and eighth centuries.
  • C.Augustine was sent by the pope to establish new churches in Britain.
  • D.Because of his conversion to Christianity, King Æthelberht agreed to give Augustine the land for the church.
  • E.Augustine established the Canterbury church which became the hub of English Christianity.
  • F.The Canterbury Church became the seat of the British Monarchy.

Answers on next page!

{Patreon Special} TOEFL iBT Reading | The History of Native American Trade

We’re back with some TOEFL iBT Reading! Document is down below, and it’s about the History of Native American Trade! This will be very useful to test and see if you can do the difficult passages. Answers are on the last page! 18 minutes to complete the passage! If you’re on my TOEFL iBT Badge, you get access to this and dozens more!


TOEFL iTP | Reading – Intermediate | Algae

Welcome back to another super special! Very sorry to all my TOEFL iTPers out there, but I’ve been focusing heavily on iBT which is a good 30-50% of what you would see on your reading test. Good practice on those blogs, too! Nonetheless, what we have here today is an intermediate-level reading passage and I’ll make it into a video/podcast, too, so look down below for the links!

Algae is a primitive form of life, a single-celled or simple multiple-celled organism that is able to conduct the process of photosynthesis. It is generally found in water but can also be found elsewhere, growing on such surfaces as rocks or trees. The various types of algae are classified according to their pigmentation, or coloration.

Blue-green algae, or Cyanophyta, can grow at very high temperatures and under high-intensity light. This is a microscopic type of algae, and some species consist of only one cell. Blue-gree algae are the oldest form of life with photosynthetic capabilities and fossilized remains of this type of algae more than 3.4 billion years old have been found in parts of Africa.

Green algae, or Chlorophyta, is generally found in freshwater. It reproduces on the surfaces of enclosed bodies of water such as ponds or lakes and has the appearance of a fuzzy green coating on the water. In large quantities, this type of algae may reproduce enough to give a green color to an entire lake.

Brown algae, or Phaeophyta, grows in shallow, temperate water. This type of algae is the largest in size and is most recognizable as a type of seaweed; kelp is a type of brown algae that has grown to lengths of up to 200 feet. Its long stalks can be enmeshed on the ocean floor, or it can float freely on the ocean’s surface.

Red algae, or Rhodophyta, is a small, delicate organism found in the deep waters of the subtropics, where it often grows with coral. This type of algae has an essential role in the formation of coral reefs: it secrets lime from the seawater to foster the formation of limestone deposits.

  1. What is the author’s main purpose?
  • to show what color algae is
  • to differentiate the various classifications of algae
  • to describe where algae is found
  • to clarify the appearance of the different types of algae

2. Which of the following is NOT true about algae?

  • all types have only one cell
  • it can be found out of water
  • it can use photosynthesis
  • it is not a relatively new form of life

3. the word “pigmentation” in line 4 means

  • size
  • shape
  • composition
  • color

4. The word “microscopic” in line 6 is closest in meaning to

  • mechanical
  • tiny
  • visual
  • bacterial

5. Algae remnants found in Africa are

  • still flourishing
  • photogenic
  • extremely old
  • red in color

6. Green algae is generally found

  • on the ocean floor
  • on top of the water
  • throughout ponds and lakes
  • surrounding enclosed bodies of water

7. The word “coating” in line 10 could best be replaced by

  • clothing
  • covering
  • warmth
  • sweater

8. Brown algae would most likely be found

  • on trees
  • near green algae
  • on rocks
  • in the ocean

9. According to the passage, red algae is

  • study
  • huge
  • fragile
  • found in shallow water

10. it can be inferred from the passage that limestone deposits serve as the basis of

  • coral reefs
  • red algae
  • subtropical seawater
  • secret passages

11. How is the information in the paragraph organized

  • various details supporting a theory are explored
  • various classifications of a specific life form are described
  • various stages of the chronological development of a life form are presented
  • various elements that compose a certain life form are outlined

12. This passage would most probably be assigned reading in a course on

  • chemistry
  • physics
  • botany
  • zoology

Answers on page 2

Podcast – Coming soon

YouTube – Coming Soon

Arsenio’s Business English Podcast | Season 6 | Investment | Tips for Saving Money

Here’s a pre-investment podcast — podcast — for all of you out there. I came across a very informational video that brought the spotlight on my money and finances, especially over the year.  As you probably know, shutdowns had begun early last year and the majority of the world was caught-off-guard, including me. So, instead of being proactive, I was reactive. I didn’t have an emergency fund of 3-6 months worth of rent saved up. I didn’t have travel expenses saved up, or even the stipend for a pretty expensive visa. So, I had to work in overdrive to cover expenses and that was three months of stress.

After watching this video and in the midst of the second shutdown, I’m very excited about the “how to” save for a rainy day. Tune into the podcast before we dive into the beginning stages of investing!


TOEFL iBT | Listening | Lecture | The Bronze Age

We’re back with a pretty good one today. I’ve always been intrigued by the Bronze Age, and today is going to be a lecture on it! Are you ready for some note-taking and answering of questions? Again, view the blog (if you’re reading this on Facebook) on page 2 (down below if you’re reading this on the blog) to check your answers!


Bronze popular item to trade

trade commerce, learned that 3k years ago between med sea was popular

other materials out of bronze, including glass

excavation in egypt on Nile, discovered ancient glass factory

importing unfinished, not true

Meso region consisting of middle Eastern countries

glass in Meso, oldest glass comes from

two productions: first stage — discs of raw glass

second, melted raw glass, discs, and created objects

Several processes involved, took corts, crushed it.

Then, mixed it with plant ash

ashes left after you burn plant material

low temperature in small containers like jars that were made out of clay

grassy material grounded into powder and die to color

dye *

Once cooled, broke the molds

inside were discs

Second stage

Discs were reheated

shaped into decorative objects

Most common: beads

Imitating precious stones

looked liek pearls and emeralds and difficult to distinguish

created vessels with narrow necks

probably valuable so not common to hold common food items

mostly red, used copper

any glass was popular, red bottles owned by thee wealthy

so difficult to make, mysterious, produced for royal family

beautiful objects made great gifts

strengthen political alliances

exporting glass, too

mutual trade with Meso because it was usually white or yellow

two white discs for two red discs


 What is the lecture mainly about

  • Different types of glass objects made by Egyptians
  • Whether Egyptians or Mesopotamians were the first to make glass
  • The history of glass production
  • New information about glass making and the use in ancient Egypt

2 What is the process for making glass disks? Put the steps below in the correct order

  • a. Glass-like material is ground up and dyed blue or red.
  • b. Powdered material is heated at very high temperatures
  • c. Crushed quartz and plant ash are heated at low temperatures.
  • d. Containers are broken to remove glass disks.

3 What is the importance of the archaeological evidence recently found in Egypt?

  • It supports the theory that ancient Mesopotamians imported glass from ancient Egypt.
  • It shows that ancient Mesopotamians were producing raw glass.
  • It proves that ancient Egyptians imported glass from Mesopotamia.
  • It shows that ancient Egyptians were able to produce raw glass.

4 Using raw glass and the glass disks, what were the Egyptians able to create?

  • Cooking utensils
  • Artwork
  • Paper
  • Decorative objects

5 What are two kinds of glass objects that were valued in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia?

  • Cooking utensils
  • Beads
  • Containers
  • Stones

6 According to the professor, what are two reasons why ancient Egyptians exported glass? Click on 2 answers

  • To acquire stones such as emeralds and pearls from other countries
  • To acquire colors of glass not made in Egypt
  • To get bronze tools from other countries
  • To build relationships with foreign leaders

{Patreon Special} TOEFL iBT | Integrated Essay | The Roman Empire

With possibly the most difficult Integrated Task to date, you guys will have your hands full with this one. The Roman Empire is surely one of the hardest ones out there, so brace yourself, take your time and I’ll be looking forward to your responses! For those of you reading it on my blog, here’s the first paragraph.

The post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, known as the Roman Empire, was characterized by a government headed by emperors and large territorial holding around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Asia, and Africa. The Roman Empire was the largest empire of the Classical Antiquity period, and one of the largest in world history covering 6.8 million square kilometers. It was also among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world holding sway over 21% of the world’s entire population during that time period. The longevity and vast reach of the Empire provided a lasting influence of Latin and Greek language, culture, religion, inventions, architecture, philosophy, law, and government on future descendants. There are three reasons the Roman Empire became so powerful.


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TOEFL iTP | Grammar | Structure Mini-test #1

Welcome back to another full mini-test podcast! In today’s podcast, I will be covering a number of different sentences (as seen down below if you’re reading this blog) and break down each individual segment. You guys are going to enjoy this because this will be a round-up of all the past TOEFL iTP podcasts I’ve done, so make sure you refer back! We’re on the homestretch before we get into the Written Expression phase, so let’s kick this off with a BANG!

1. ________ by Anna Baldwin in 1878.

a. The invention of the vacuum milking machine

b. That the vacuum milking machine was invented

c. The vacuum milking machine, which was invented

d. The vacuum milking machine was invented

2. Dry cleaning is the process ________ clothes are cleaned in liquids other than water.

a. by

b. which through

c. by which

d. through

3. Sand dunes are made of loose sand _______ up by the action of the wind. a. it builds

b. builds

c. is building

d. built

4. ______________ book Jubilee, which was based on the life of her great-grandmother, Margaret Walker was awarded the Pulitzer Prize.

a. For her

b. Her

c. It was her

d. That her

5. Job specialization takes place ___________ of production is separated into occupations.

a. whenever the work is

b. when the work

c. is when the work

d. whenever working

6. _________ are hot is a common misconception.

a. All deserts

b. All deserts which

c. Of all deserts

d. That all deserts

7. ___________ imaginative stories about the origin of the game of chess.

a. Many of the

b. Many

c. There are many

d. Of the man

8. _____________ one of Canada’s greatest engineering projects, is a twenty-seven-mile long waterway between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.

a. Because the Welland Ship Canal is

b. The Welland Ship Canal is

c. That the Welland Ship Canal is

d. The Welland Ship Canal,

9. A deep-tissue massage is a type of massage therapy ____________ on one part of the body, such as the lower back.

a. its concentration is

b. concentrating

c. why it concentrates

d. to be concentrated

10. One of the most powerful optical telescopes, the “Big Eye” at Mt. Palomar, ___________ a two-hundred-inch mirror.

a. has

b. that has

c. with

d. which

11. Elfego Baca, ___________ legendary Mexican-American folk hero, was a lawman in New Mexico in the late 1880s.

a. a

b. who, as a

c. was a

d. and he was a

12. __________ relatively inexpensive, the metal pewter can be fashioned into beautiful and useful objects.

a. Even it is

b. Despite

c. Nevertheless, it is

d. Although

13. _____________ is a general category that includes all mental states and activities.

a. What do psychologists call cognition

b. Psychologists call it cognition

c. What psychologists call cognition

d. Cognition, as it is called by psychologists, which

14. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote four novels, __________ The Scarlet Letter, became an American literary classic.

a. of which one,

b. which one

c. one of which,

d. one was

15. _____________ about four years for a new aircraft model to move from the preliminary design stage to the full-production stage.

a. It takes

b. Taking

c. That takes

d. To take


Answers next page

TOEFL iBT | Listening | Lecture | Helping Behavior

Welcome back to another listening! My TOEFL iBT Listening podcasts have doubled, so I’m going to continue pumping these out for all of you. In today’s podcast, we’re going to do some more note-taking and see if our notes help us answer the lecture.


definition: voluntary actions intended to help others with reward regarded or dis

help regardless of reward

pro-social behavior

benefit another individual or group

sharing, comforting, rescuing, and helping,


behavior without expectation internal/external

helping because it’s right

police officers, nurses, etc

Facet: kin selectin theory – evolutionary perspective

screens out species, preservation is important for survival

people tend to help people with similar genetic base

favors chance of survival

would be wrong to judge the other person

hesitant to help someone if traits not similar

instance, help someone who is black but not white

reciprocal altruism, motivation = based on expectation

reward is there

person risking, rescued for them in the future

negative state relief model –

Notes Section


  1. What is the lecture mainly about?
  • negative-state relief model
  • Kin Selection theory
  • Different forms of altruism
  • Reciprocal altruism

2 According to this lecture, which of the following regarding Kin selection theory is not correct?

  • The behavior in Kin selection theory is an evolutionary process because of the natural selection
  • it explains altruism in evolutionary perspective
  • the tendency to perform behavior that may favor the chance of survival of people with different genetic base
  • it states people tend to help people with similar traits

3. What is the base meaning of Altruism?

  • pro-social behaviors that are carried out without expectation of obtaining external reward or internal reward
  • pro-social behaviors that are carried out only when the reward is immediate
  • pro-social behaviors that are carried out by only guilt every time
  • pro-social behaviors that are carried because you are afraid someone will see you not helping another person

4. What does Kin selection theory refer to?

  • the tendency to perform behaviors that may favor the chance of survival of people with similar genetic base
  • a tendency to perform behaviors that only help animals
  • a tendency to perform behaviors that only help small groups of African tribes in Uganda
  • a tendency to perform behaviors that may favor the chance of survival for your immediate family (husband/wife/children/parents)

5 If you help someone in need only because you are stressed out about the idea of not doing anything, what theory are you proving correct?

  • negative state relief model
  • unfriendly attitude model
  • America’s next top model
  • horrible person model

TOEFL iBT | Listening | Discussion | Summer Trip

Welcome back to the first-ever edition of TOEFL iBT Lecture! I’ve obviously done the discussions before, but it’s time for the wondrous lectures…and in today’s lecture, we have a summer-trip. Two people discussing details of a trip…but how are you doing to be able to take notes throughout the lecture? Listen to my notes in the podcast (or notes on video) and let’s answer these questions!

Planning trip for children to New York

Concern – transportation — lodging figured out

How will the get there

Budget restrictions? — the less the better

Train, buses, or just flying

Flying most expensive but quickest

Rule that one out

Nervous parents because kids haven’t flown before

Buses are usual and they have taken them alot

train is exciting

parents won’t worry about trains

trains are faster

bus at mercy of traffic

Bus you can stop whenever you want

train won’t allow stopping

kids have to get up and run around a while

How many children — 60

Split them into two groups: choose or assign them. One group take bus, other take train


  1. Why does the student speak with the event director?
  • to get permission to host an event
  • to ask questions about working in the event direction division
  • to discuss a trip that she’s planning for children
  • to learn more about the various events that happen

2. Which of the following is NOT an option that the student lists for travel?

  • driving personal cars
  • taking the train
  • taking the bus
  • taking an airplane

3. Which of the following is an advantage of taking the bus?

  • the bus might get caught up in traffic
  • the bus can make stops whenever necessary
  • the bus is something exciting that kids are not accustomed to
  • the bus is free

4. What course of action does the student settle on thanks to the event director?

  • the student decides that they will all take the train
  • the student decides that they will all take the bus
  • the student decides that half of the students will take the bus and half will take the train
  • the student decides to cancel the trip and plan something else instead

5. Why does the student think that the option of flying should be ruled out?

  • she knows that many kids come from families that can’t afford expensive means of travel
  • she feels the parents might get anxious because many kids have no experience with flying
  • she believes there are better ways than flying to make use of the trip’s budget
  • she considers flying unnecessary since there’s no rush involved at any point during the trip