Let this be a dose of self-awareness for a lot of you out there who are probably making the same mistake in regards to your speaking sections. My wonderful student, who I’m coaching, sent me one of her speaking evaluations. Now, because it wasn’t up to par, I walk her through the entire process, break it down, show what she said, and gave her a huge amount of suggestions. If you guys are interested in speaking evaluations, let me know!
Let’s get back into another reading! This one is a bit more difficult than the previous one, so you better brace yourself. Again, if anyone is interested in the Structure Course that I’ve launched already, click the link here to gain access to the page! If you buy after June 2nd, it will be $57 but you can purchase the Written Expression (debuts July 1st) for $27 (upsale). Nonetheless, let’s get into it!
Although only a small percentage of electromagnetic radiation that is emitted by the Sun is ultraviolet (UV) radiation, the amount that is emitted would be enough to cause severe damage to most forms of life on Earth were it all to reach the surface of the Earth. Fortunately, all of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation does not reach the Earth because of a layer of oxygen, called the ozone layer, encircling the Earth in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 15 miles above the Earth. The ozone layer absorbs much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation and prevents it from reaching the Earth.
Ozone is a form of oxygen in which each molecule consists of three atoms (O3) instead of the two atoms (O2) usually found in an oxygen molecule. Ozone forms in the stratosphere in a process that is initiated by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. UV radiation from the Sun splits oxygen molecules with two atoms into free oxygen atoms, and each of these unattached oxygen atoms then joins up with an oxygen molecule to form ozone. UV radiation is also capable of splitting up ozone molecules; thus, ozone is constantly forming, splitting, and reforming, it is unable to reach Earth and cause damage there.
Recently, however, the ozone layer over parts of the Earth has been diminishing. Chief among the culprits in the case of the disappearing ozone, those that are really responsible, are the chloroflurocarbons (CFCs). CFCs meander up from Earth into the stratosphere, where they break down and release chlorine. The released chlorine reacts with ozone in the stratosphere to form chlorine monoxide (ClO) and Oxygen (O2). The chlorine then becomes free to go through the cycle over and over again. One chlorine atom can, in fact, destroy hundreds of thousands of ozone molecules in this repetitious cycle, and the effects of this destructive process are now becoming evident.Longman
- According to the passage, ultraviolet radiation from the Sun
- Is causing severe damage to the Earth’s ozone layer
- Is only a fraction of the Sun’s electromagnetic radiation
- Creates electromagnetic radiation
- Always reaches the Earth
- The word “encircling” in Line 5 is closest in meaning to
- It is stated in the passage that the ozone layer
- Enables ultraviolet radiation to reach the Earth
- Reflects ultraviolet radiation
- Shields the earth from a lot of ultraviolet radiation
- Reaches down to the Earth
- According to the passage, an ozone molecule
- Consists of three oxygen molecules
- Contains more oxygen atoms than the usual oxygen molecule does
- Consists of two oxygen atoms
- Contains the same number of atoms as the usual oxygen molecule
- The word “free” in line 10 could best be replaced by
- Ultraviolet radiation causes oxygen molecules to
- Rise to the stratosphere
- Burn up ozone molecules
- Split up and form as ozone
- Reduce the number of chloroflurocarbons
- The pronoun “it” in line 13 refers to
- The word “culprits” in line 16 closest in meaning to which of the following?
- Guilty parties
- Group members
- According to the passage, what happens after a chlorine molecule reacts with an ozone molecule?
- The ozone breaks down into three oxygen atoms.
- Two different molecules are created
- The two molecules combine into one molecule.
- Three distinct molecules result
- Where in the passage does the author explain how much damage chlorine can do?
- Lines 1-3
- Lines 12-14
- Lines 18-19
- Lines 20-22
- The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses
- The negative results of the cycle of ozone destructions
- Where chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) come from
- The causes of the destruction of ozone molecules
- How electromagnetic radiation is created
Answers on Next page!
Welcome to an ultimate sneak peek! Now, keep in mind that if you sign up with my TOEFL membership, which is $50 a month (link down below), you get four of these types of evaluations FOR FREE! For any additional add-ons, it’s just 4$ per…but you’re going to see how great this is and how beneficial it could be for you.
In saying that, enjoy this speaking question 4 featuring one of my favorite Filipina students!
Man, after this specific coaching session with two of my Brazilian nurses, I asked them if I could use some of this audio to share with you guys because I honestly believe with the amount of advice given and received in this podcast, it could be life-changing for a lot of you who have difficulty in the speaking question 1. We did 2-3 speaking question 1s per student, along with some sound advice towards the end. One of the nurses had excellent points of encouragement for her friend — and she was also able to identify the areas of need very quickly and fix them within just 20 minutes. Just a PHENOMENAL job. With that being said, let’s get into this jam session!
Boom! We’re back with a tough reading, and I’ll be covering it for you guys! In today’s full reading segment, we have the infamous Earth’s Age write up which is a total kick-ass. Here we go!
 One of the first recorded observers to estimate Earth’s relative age was the Greek historian Herodotus, who lived from approximately 480 B.C. to 425 B.C. He realized that the Nile River Delta was in fact made up of a series of sediment deposits built up as a result of continuous floods. He noted that individual floods deposit only thin layers of sediment, and he was then able to conclude that the Nile Delta had taken thousands of years to build up. More important than Herodotus’s calculations of the Earth’s age, which are in fact trivial in comparison with the actual age of Earth, was the idea that one could estimate ages of geologic features by determining rates of the processes responsible for such features, and that it was possible to assume the rates to be roughly constant over time. Similar applications of this concept were used time and time again in later centuries to estimate the age of the formation of rocks, in particular, layers of sediment that had compressed and cemented to form sedimentary rocks.
 It wasn’t until the 17th century that any further attempts were made to understand clues to Earth’s history through the rock record. Nicolaus Steno (1638–1686) was the first to work out the principles of the progressive depositing of sediment in Tuscany. However, it was the founder of modern geology, James Hutton (1726–1797), who was the first to learn that geologic processes recur naturally, a key insight. Forces associated with subterranean heat cause land to be uplifted into plateaus and mountain ranges. The effects of wind and water then break down the masses of uplifted rock, producing sediment that is transported by water downhill to then form layers in oceans, lakes, or even seashores. With time, the layers then become sedimentary rock. These rocks are then uplifted in the future to form new mountain ranges, which exhibit sedimentary layers (and the remains of life within those layers) of the earlier episodes of erosion and deposition.
 Hutton’s idea thus represents an amazing insight because its discovery was able to unite many individual phenomena and observations into a conceptual picture of Earth’s history. With the further assumption that these geologic processes were generally no more or less vigorous than they are today, Hutton’s examination of sedimentary layers led him to the realization that Earth’s history must be colossal, that geologic time is an abyss and human history a speck by comparison.
 After Hutton, many geologists tried to determine rates of sedimentation so as to estimate the age of Earth from the total length of the sedimentary, or stratigraphic record. The numbers estimated for the age of Earth at the turn of the 20th century were 100 million to 400 million years. These numbers underestimated the actual age by factors of 10 to 50 because much of the sedimentary record is missing in various locations and because there is a long rock sequence that is older than half a billion years that is far less well defined in terms of fossils and less well preserved.
 A variety of other methods used to estimate the Earth’s age fell short, and could be seen as defective determinations of the Sun’s age. German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) recognized that chemical reactions could not supply the tremendous amount of energy flowing from the Sun for more than about a millennium. The age of the Sun based on the Sun’s energy coming from gravitational contraction was discovered by two physicists in the 19th century. Due to the force of gravity, the compression resulting in an object’s collapse must release energy. Ages for Earth were derived that were in the tens of millions of years, much less than the geologic estimates of the time.
 It was the discovery of radioactivity at the end of the 19th century that resulted in finally determining both the Sun’s energy source and the age of Earth. From the discovery of radioactivity came a wave of discoveries leading to radioisotopic dating. This then led to the realization that Earth must be billions of years old, and finally to the discovery of nuclear fusion as an energy source capable of supporting the Sun’s luminosity for that amount of time. By the 1960s, both analyses of meteorites and refinements of solar evolution models came together to settle on an age for the solar system, and hence for Earth, of 4.5 billion years.
1 According to paragraph 2, James Hutton was the first person to
- work out standards of the dynamic saving of silt.
- understand that geologic processes occur in repeating cycles
- show the power of Earth’s warm inner core
- comprehend pieces of information to Earth’s history through the stone record.
2 Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
With the further assumption that these geologic processes were generally no more or less vigorous than they are today, Hutton’s examination of sedimentary layers led him to the realization that Earth’s history must be colossal, that geologic time is an abyss and human history a speck by comparison.
- Hutton understood that if these geologic procedures have dependably happened at about the same rate as they do today, Earth’s history is tremendously long compared to mankind’s.
- Hutton’s idea revealed vast knowledge by bringing together numerous individual questions and ideas into a theoretical picture of Earth’s history
- Hutton’s examination of aggregate layers caused him to infer that geologic processes have been by and large the same as they are today throughout Earth’s long history.
- Hutton’s examination of clastic layers resulted in a breakthrough, and his decisions about geologic procedures are among the most noteworthy in mankind’s history
3 .As indicated by passage 4, what happened when geologists at the turn of the twentieth century attempted to gauge Earth’s age?
- They disregarded Hutton’s discoveries about rates of sedimentation and by doing so their calculations were off by a factor of 10 to 50.
- Utilizing the sedimentary record, they were able to figure Earth’s proper age within 100 million to 400 million years.
- They didn’t realize that a great part of the sedimentary record is missing and in this way, believed that Earth was substantially younger than it is in reality.
- They didn’t effectively ascertain the rates of sedimentation which caused them to incorrectly presume that the age of the Earth is considerably younger than it ought to be.
4 The word ‘defective’ in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to:
5 For what reason is ‘gravitational contraction’ used in the entry?
- To demonstrate that inquiries concerning the Sun’s vitality source were as intriguing to early researchers as inquiries regarding Earth’s age
- To give prove that Hutton’s thoughts prompted an in material science and stargazing and also in geography
- To refer to a strategy for assessing the age of the Sun that was utilized to decide Earth’s age
- To clarify why there is such a lot of vitality spilling out of the Sun
6 As indicated by paragraph 5, Immanuel Kant perceived that the Sun’s vitality
- was not possible through chemical reactions alone over a long period of time.
- originated from powerful pressure resulting from gravity.
- was to a great extent the consequence of synthetic responses that occurred over a time of over a thousand years.
- was important to fuel the greater part of the concoction responses on Earth
7 As indicated by passage 6, which of the following isn’t valid about researchers latest estimate of Earth’s age?
- It depends on data taken from the examination of shooting stars.
- It is shockingly similar to estimates from the nineteenth century.
- It is affirmed by sun based development models.
- It puts the period of Earth at around 4 5 billion years.
8 Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 6 about the formation of the solar system?
- The Sun was already billions of years old when the planets were formed.
- The planets closest to the Sun formed first.
- Meteorites entered the solar system sometime after the planets were formed.
- All parts of the solar system formed at approximately the same time.
9 Examine the four █ in the selection below and indicate at which block the following sentence could be inserted into the passage:
This thought came to be known as the rule of uniformitarianism, and Herodotus was just the first to apply it.
One of the first recorded observers to estimate Earth’s relative age was the Greek historian Herodotus, who lived from approximately 480 B.C. to 425 B.C. █ [A] He realized that the Nile River Delta was in fact made up of a series of sediment deposits built up as a result of continuous floods. █ [B] He noted that individual floods deposit only thin layers of sediment, and he was then able to conclude that the Nile Delta had taken thousands of years to build up. █ [C] More important than Herodotus’s calculations of the Earth’s age, which are in fact trivial in comparison with the actual age of Earth, was the idea that one could estimate ages of geologic features by determining rates of the processes responsible for such features, and that it was possible to assume the rates to be roughly constant over time. █ [D] Similar applications of this concept were to be used time and time again in later centuries to estimate the age of the formation of rocks, in particular, of layers of sediment that had compressed and cemented to form sedimentary rocks..
10 Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Deciding the period of Earth has been a troublesome issue ever of.
- A.Herodotus endeavored to compute Earth’s age by watching residue stores, however, modem standards for evaluating Earth’s age from geologic procedures emerged from crafted by Steno and Hutton.
- B.Gaps in the sedimentary record started to be perceived by Kant and were later clarified by physicists contemplating the amount of energy provided by the Sun.
- C.Radio isotopic dating, made possible by the discovery of radioactivity, as well as the revelation of atomic fusion, cleared up misconceptions regarding as to Earth’s age and the source of the sun’s energy.
- D. Hutton portrayed the impacts of wind and water on masses of inspired shake and was the first to propose that a significant part of the sedimentary record was missing because of disintegration.
- E. Estimates of Earth’s age from the past were amazingly low in light of what we know today about the rates of geologic procedures, and evaluations of the Sun’s age and vitality source.
- F. In the 1960s researchers moved from the investigation of shooting stars to refinements of sun-based advancement models and decided the age of the nearby planetary group to be no less than a billion years.
Answers on Next Page
We’re back! It’s been SO LONG! Ha! The listening portion was on a hiatus, but with google rankings and blog views skyrocketing, I have some special treats for you coming. Today we’re going to be doing a Listening Part C with a comprehensive breakdown, so let’s get into it!
- In which course would this lecture probably be given?
- water sports
- American history
2. What is the most likely meaning of the expression “to clip along?”
- to cut
- to move fast
- to steer a boat
- to build a ship
3. What were clipper ships first used for in the United States?
- to bring tea from China
- to transport gold to California
- to trade with the British
- to sail the American river system
4. What does the professor remind the students about?
- a reading assignment
- a quiz on Friday
- a research paper for the end of the semester
- some written homework
We’re back with a TOEFL iBT reading! In this blog, you’ll have a set of questions to answer followed by the answers which will be on page 2. In the video, I will break down 5 questions and show you how NOT to overanalyze. Although this could be difficult at first glance, by watching me break it down, you will gain confidence in answer the question. So, without further ado, let’s get into it!
 In the fifth century AD, Britain was being attacked by the Irish, Pict and Germanic people from southern Denmark and Germany. These invaders were called Saxons. The term Anglo Saxon was developed in the eighth century. It was coined to distinguish between the British (Anglo) and the Germanic people (Saxons). The Roman-Britano leaders defended the land as best they could, but the invaders eventually began to settle into Britain. Irish kingdoms settled in both the west and north of the country. Meanwhile, the Angles, Saxons and Jute tribes took over the east part of Britain.
 Most of the information we have gathered about the Anglo-Saxons has been collected from cemeteries where personal possessions were placed. A graveyard in Suffolk is considered to be a royal cemetery of the East Anglian kings. A large oak ship was discovered here along with objects suggesting that the Swedes settled in this area.
 Although the Christian church suffered greatly from the invasions, it survived in the areas of Roman Britain that were not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons. Two missionaries came out of that church: Saint Nina from Scotland and Saint Patrick. Nina founded a church at Whithorn. Patrick is thought to have come from Wales where he was captured by Irish raiders. Having escaped home from slavery, he returned again to Ireland where he introduced Christianity to the Irish population. It is thought that he was buried in County Down in the late fifth century. St Columba was a later missionary who founded Derry and Durrow in Ireland. In 565 AD, he founded the monastery of Iona on an island west of the Isle of Mull in Scotland.
 One important source of sixth to eighth-century British history is the ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’, written by a monk, Venerable Bede. In his work, he explains how Pope Gregory (pope from 590 to 604 AD) sent a missionary called Augustine to England to found major churches in London and York. Augustine met Æthelberht, king of Kent, in 597AD who gave him land in Canterbury to build a church. Thus, Canterbury became the main center for English Christianity. Æthelberht and Edwin, king of Northumbria, both converted to Christianity.
 Britain was now divided into the kingdoms of Diera (Yorkshire), Bernicia (north)South Saxons (Sussex), East Angles (East Anglia), West Saxons (Wessex) and Mercians in the Midlands. Cornwall, Devon and Wales were independent and in Northern Ireland, there were smaller kingdoms. Some British kingdoms remained independent, including Cornwall and Devon in the south west, Gwynedd and Powys in modern Wales, and Strathclyde, in what is now the region of Glasgow.
 At this time, the Irish missionaries founded churches along the west coast of Scotland. Converts remained loyal to the Iona church, founded by Columba. However, a disagreement over the Christian calendar arose. King Oswiu decided for the Roman calendar over the Ionan calendar. From that point, Irish influence on the England church began to wane. Archbishop Theodore of Canterbury was appointed in 668 AD by Pope Vitalian. Theodore introduced Greek and established new dioceses.
 Irish and English missionaries continued to travel and convert in France, Italy and Germany. Great English missionaries included Egbert and Boniface who reorganized the church in Germany and Bavaria. The Northumbrian empire began to decline after 685AD. However, Northumbria remained a cultural crossing point between Rome, England and Ireland. Sculptor, poetry and a library of works remains from Northumbrian culture.
1 Paragraph 1 supports which of the following statements about the word Anglo-Saxon:
- The word Anglo-Saxon derives from two words, meaning British-German.
- The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the British term Saxon for invaders.
- The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the German word Saxon for the British.
- The word Anglo-Saxon derives from the Irish term Saxon for invaders.
2 According to paragraph 3, all of the following statements are true about the work of missionaries, EXCEPT:
- Saint Nina was a Scottish missionary.
- Saint Patrick was an Irish missionary who converted the people of Northern Ireland.
- Saint Patrick may have been buried in Country Down in the fifth century.
- Saint Columba established the Ionan monastery.
3 Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3 about Christianity?
- Christianity disappeared from Britain after the invasions.
- Christianity did not survive in the areas not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons.
- Christianity survived only in the areas not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons, but moved to Iona in 565 AD.
- Christianity survived only in the areas not invaded by the Anglo-Saxons, and important missionaries came from those areas.
4 In paragraph 4, why does the author mention the ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’, written by a monk, Venerable Bede?
- Because it sheds light on the invasions of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain.
- Because it sheds light on the history of Britain between the sixth and eight centuries.
- Because it explains the work of the missionaries.
- Because it describes the rise of the Canterbury church.
5 According to paragraph 5, what happened in Britain after 597 AD?
- Britain was divided into several kingdoms, all dependent on one another.
- Britain was divided into several kingdoms, all independent.
- Britain was divided into several kingdoms and some remained independent.
- Britain was united into one kingdom.
6 The word ‘decline’ in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to:
- Get worse
7 Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the following sentence?
However, a disagreement over Christian calendar arose.
- But a conflict emerged related to the Christian calendar.
- But a conflict started over the Christmas calendar.
- However, an agreement over the Christian calendar was impossible.
- However, a dispute over the Christian calendar raged.
8 Which of the following is true, according to the passage?
- The Christian church in Britain faced many challenges between the sixth and eighth centuries, but disintegrated after this time.
- The Christian church worldwide faced many challenges between the sixth and eighth centuries, but continued to thrive.
- The Christian church in Britain had many achievements between the sixth and eighth centuries, but disintegrated after this time.
- The Christian church in Britain faced many challenges between the sixth and eighth centuries, but continued to thrive.
9 Examine the four █ in the selection below and indicate at which block the following sentence could be inserted into the passage:
Ionan followers became more isolated from the king whose allegiance was with the Roman church.
█ [A] However, a disagreement over the Christian calendar arose. █ [B] King Oswiu decided for the Roman calendar over the Ionan calendar. █ [C] From that point, Irish influence on the England church began to wane. █ [D] .
10Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
One important source of sixth to eighth century British history is the ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’, written by a monk, Venerable Bede.
- A.The ‘Ecclesiastical History of the English People’ by Venerable Bede is the most important book in British history.
- B.Bede’s work sheds important light on British history between the sixth and eighth centuries.
- C.Augustine was sent by the pope to establish new churches in Britain.
- D.Because of his conversion to Christianity, King Æthelberht agreed to give Augustine the land for the church.
- E.Augustine established the Canterbury church which became the hub of English Christianity.
- F.The Canterbury Church became the seat of the British Monarchy.
Answers on next page!
We’re back with some TOEFL iBT Reading! Document is down below, and it’s about the History of Native American Trade! This will be very useful to test and see if you can do the difficult passages. Answers are on the last page! 18 minutes to complete the passage! If you’re on my TOEFL iBT Badge, you get access to this and dozens more!
We’re back with another awesome segment! So, in today’s segment, you’re going to have a couple of phases.
First, you’ll need to take notes on the reading (down below for 3 minutes).
After that, tune into this podcast here and listen to the Coal Burning audio. You will take notes and start writing your essay.
Then, watch the video down below and see the feedback I give my wonderful student who I’m coaching.
Reading – Coal Burning
The coal industry has had a large environmental impact from land use, waste management, water and air pollution caused by coal mining, processing, and using coal. Not only does it cause atmospheric pollution, but coal burning also produces millions of tons of solid waste products. Burning coal comes with severe health effects and is estimated to shorten approximately 1,000,000 lives worldwide every year. The following are three methods for reducing the pollution produced by coal burning.
One method is to improve the reaction efficiency. By improving the reaction efficiency, air pollution can be reduced. It will not be an immediate impact, but over the long term it will have a significant impact.
Another method is to use water to flush the coal and remove sulfides to prevent the creation of sulfur dioxide. This would help to reduce the level of pollution created by the sulfides reacting with the air.
A third method is to collect the emitted carbon dioxide. This would prevent the gases from reaching the atmosphere. Pollution levels from carbon dioxide would drop significantly over time as this technology is expanded.
Another Patreon special is here! In today’s exclusive badge, I’ve debut the TOEFL iBT Discussion “Missing the Trip,” which a student consults his teacher about missing an upcoming trip. Remember, these episodes are uploaded on a daily basis, so if you’re interested in having these, message me today!