TOEFL iBT | Part 4 Question | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Biological Clocks

With his wife cheering him on in the background, here’s the final question and the last of this series.  Biological clocks, a part 4 question with a lot of detail, was given to him and it, as you would expect, was a bit difficult.  It’s all about separating information though and note-taking, so in the beginning, you can expect to have some resistance. But as you may have heard in the coaching sessions with one of my Peruvian students, it could be manageable and built up over the course of 5 hours — literally.


TOEFL iBT | Part 2 Question | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Free Shuttle Service

Welcome back to the Part II of the coaching segment with one of my students. So, in this podcast, you’re going to hear that my student had difficulty hearing it at the beginning. Although you will be able to hear and take notes on the free shuttle service recording, why couldn’t he? Again, it’s another case of the “I didn’t take notes because I wasn’t able to separate information accordingly.” It’s completely fine, but it could be problematic come test day because you get only one chance.  This was just a tester from the beginning of my coaching with him, so he has gotten far better.  But in the beginning, it was hard for him to take notes on particular lectures. 

The Good

  • Great opening
  • Two reasons…..
  • Chronological order

The Need for Improvement….in the podcast….

TOEFL iBT | Part 1 Question | Speaking | Spending vs. Saving

Months ago I had a client from Palestine who was looking to pass the TOEFL iBT, and because he would freak out so much, he would lose his thought, become discouraged and stop taking notes (as you’ll hear in the next few podcasts).

In this speaking question, he got only 15 second to prepare. Here’s how he did.

  • Thesis
  • Stance
  • Plan to buy a car
  • Save money for his wife
  • Buy a house

He had structure overall and backed up his thesis in terms of supporting details. However, it could’ve been better if he had said “invest” instead of “save.” Because if he saves money only to spend it on a car and house, that’s not really saving, right? But investing in future ownership is different. So it’s a little difficult to say which is better. Also, his grammatical errors were a bit of a problem…and that might make him stumble over his words, cause hesitation and lose his thought.


TOEFL iBT: Complete the Summary Question | Patreon Sneak Peek

The “Complete The Summary” question is one of the two question types that are different from the usual multiple choice questions we’ve dealt with, so far. This question type requires you to choose three correct answers, not just one. It is also important to know that in this question, sometimes there are more than three correct answers, but you need to choose the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. 

This question type is normally the last question you’ll answer per reading passage.

Let me get this straight. Even though an answer choice is found and expresses an idea in the passage, it is incorrect because it does not express the most important idea?

Yes! That’s exactly right!

So what you need to do is determine if the answer choice is a main idea vs a detail or displaying wrong information.

  1. If an answer choice is a main idea, the answer choice restates the main idea of a paragraph or multiple paragraphs. That’s a good choice. In TOEFL reading passages, the main idea of a paragraph is usually found in the first two sentences of the paragraph. The remaining sentences are most likely supporting details. However, sometimes the first two sentences can be vague, so in this case, you’ll need to continue reading the next couple sentences to understand the main idea.
  2. If the answer choice is a detail, it’ll restate a minor point mentioned in a paragraph. Even though it is correct information, it’s not a good choice.
  3. If the answer choice describes content that is not found in the reading or is wrong according to the reading, then of course, eliminate it.

If you want to read the rest of the document, tune into my Patreon Badge (TOEFL iBT) down below or inquire about it today!


TOEFL iTP | Reading | Susceptibility to Catching Colds

Welcome back to another TOEFL iTP reading! I see my blog exploding in so many ways, along with my YouTube videos and podcasts…so I’m doubling down on my blogs, videos, and podcasts with TOEFL iTP. So, today is the susceptibility to catching colds! Here’s the reading and questions down below.

Another critical factor that plays a part in susceptibility to colds is age. A study done by the University of Michigan School of Public Health revealed particulars that seem to hold true for the general population. Infants are the most cold-ridden group, averaging more than six colds in their first year. Boys have more colds than girls up to age three. After the age of three, girls are more susceptible than boys, and teenage girls average three colds a year to boys’ two.

The general incidence of colds continues to decline into maturity. Elderly people who are in good health have as few as one or two colds annually one exception is found among people in their twenties, especially women, who show a rise in cold infections, because people in this age group are most likely to have young children. Adult who delay having children until their thirties and forties experience the same sudden increase in cold infections.

The study also found that economics plays an important role. As income increases, the frequency at which colds are reported in the family decreases. Families with the lowest income suffer about a third more colds than families at the upper end. Lower income generally forces people to live in more cramped quarters than those typically occupied by wealthier people, and crowding increases the opportunities for the cold virus to travel from person to person. Low income may also adversely influence diet. The degree to which poor nutrition affects susceptibility to colds is not yet clearly established, but an inadequate diet is suspected of lowering resistance generally.

Bruce Rogers pbt toefl
  1. The paragraph that precedes this passage most probably deals with
  • minor diseases other than colds
  • the recommended treatment of colds
  • a factor that affects susceptibility to colds
  • methods of preventing colds among elderly people

2. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word “particulars“?

  • minor errors
  • specific facts
  • small distinctions
  • individual people

3. What does the author claim about the study discussed in the passage?

  • it contains many inconsistencies
  • it specialized in children
  • it contradicts the results of earlier studies in the field
  • its results apparently are relevant for the population as a whole.

4. It may be inferred from the passage that which of the following groups of people is most likely to catch colds?

  • infant boys
  • young girls
  • teenage boys
  • elderly women

5. There is information in the second paragraph of the passage to support which of the following conclusions?

  • men are more susceptible to colds than women
  • children infect their parents with colds
  • people who live in a cold climate have more colds than those who live in a warm one
  • people who don’t have children are more susceptible to colds than those who do

6. The phrase “people in this age group”

  • infants
  • people in their twenties
  • people in their thirties and forties
  • elderly people

7. The author’s main purpose in writing the last paragraph of the passage was to

  • explain how cold viruses are transmitted
  • prove that a poor diet causes colds
  • discuss the relationship between income and frequency of colds
  • discuss the distribution of income among the people in the study

8. The word “cramped” means…

  • cheap
  • crowded
  • depressing
  • simple

9. The author’s tone in this passage could best be described as

  • neutral
  • humorous
  • tentative
  • critical

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TOEFL Grammar – Quantifiers

Here we are! TOEFL Grammar is available on my Patreon! However, you need to sign up on my TOEFL iBT Badge to get all the details. Here’s an excerpt from the long document.

A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the amount or quantity. Quantifiers can be used with both countable and uncountable nouns. Below is a list of some common quantifiers.

many, much, a few, a little, a huge amount of, a large number of, some, any, no, several, a great number of, a small quantity of ..etc


TOEFL iTP | Written Expression | Mini-test #1 Breakdown

BOOM! We got a big one today. For the first time, I’m introducing the written expression part of TOEFL iTP! This is a big shout out to a wonderful fan of mine….so here’s is the massive breakdown of each individual question with answers.  If you guys are interested in each question’s formula and additional work, videos, exclusive podcasts, know that there is a membership (TOEFL iTP Badge) available! Inquire!


TOEFL Speaking & How You’re Graded

How your speaking response is graded.Task Fulfillment

Pronunciation & Intonation
Flow & Speech
Correct Grammar Usage
Vocabulary Usage (Appropriacy and Range)
Support & Development
Connections & Coherence
Task Fulfillment (Sample)
Criteria DescriptionScore
Task fulfillment is about how well you respond to the question you are given. TOEFL raters are looking for a response that answers the question directly, with relevant ideas that are fully developed. Fulfilling the task means answering all parts of the question completely.Score:
Score TOEFL Report 0 doesn’t address the task or no response was given

1 The response is unconnected or minimally connected to the given task

2 is mostly connected to the given task/question, but presents some ideas and information that are not directly related to the task/question may focus more on the reading passage than the listening

3 is connected to the given task/question, but may not be fully developed generally focuses on listening passage but may include a few unnecessary details from the reading passage

4 directly addresses the task/question and is fully developed focuses exactly on the points from the listening that satisfy the requirements of the task
Pronunciation & Intonation (Sample)
Criteria DescriptionScore
Pronunciation and intonation is about how you form English sounds and how you use natural English intonation. Your pronunciation and intonation can damage your score if it is difficult for the raters to understand what you are saying.
Score TOEFL Report 0 doesn’t address the task or no response was given

1 The response requires significant effort by listener because speech is mostly unclear, due to errors with: individual sounds and clusters word and sentence stress final intonation

2 The response requires some listener effort because speech is sometimes unclear, due to some unnatural use of: individual sounds and clusters word and sentence stress final and non-final intonation

3 The response may require effort by listener at times, though speech is generally clear, with: some sound and cluster pronunciation mistakes unnatural word and sentence stress some unnatural intonation

4 The response requires almost no effort by listener because speech is clear, including: natural sound and cluster pronunciation mostly natural intonation natural word and sentence stress, which may be used to convey subtle meanings
Flow & Speech (Sample)
Criteria DescriptionScore
Flow and speech is about how quickly you can speak and how much pausing and hesitation you use. You don’t have to speak quickly, but just quickly enough to sound natural and explain all of your ideas. Raters want to hear natural rhythm and flow.Score: 2 / 4
Score TOEFL Report 0 doesn’t address the task or no response was given

1 has disconnected speech that does not flow naturally has mostly short and overly basic utterances includes many unnatural pauses and hesitations that may make the listener uncomfortable

2 attempts but has some difficulties maintaining natural rhythm and fluid speech attempts more than just basic utterances, though stops frequently to prepare ideas or self-correct may contain some long pauses and unnatural hesitations

3 sustains mostly natural rhythm, though at times breaks it with unnatural linking or stress has some unnatural pausing and hesitation

4 has mostly natural rhythm is generally quite fluid and sustained has minimal unnatural pausing and hesitation
Correct Grammar Usage (Sample)
Criteria DescriptionScore
Correct grammar usage is about how you use English grammar and sentence structure. Raters want to see that you can use what you know correctly. Your grammar doesn’t have to be perfect to score high, but mistakes shouldn’t interfere with your meaning.Score: 2 / 4
Score TOEFL Report 0 doesn’t address the task or no response was given

1 Meaning is often difficult to understand because of significant and frequent errors with: nouns verb tenses adverbs and adjectives, including some phrases word order articles, pronouns, quantifiers, prepositions gerunds

2 Meaning is sometimes obscured because of errors with: noun and noun phrases verb (tenses and modals) adverbs and adjectives (including phrases) word order articles, pronouns, quantifiers, prepositions gerunds

3 Meaning is generally clear despite some errors with: noun phrases and clauses verb (tenses, modals, and passives) adverbs and adjectives (including phrases and clauses) word order articles, pronouns, quantifiers, prepositions

4 Meaning is not affected by grammatical errors, though there may still be minor errors with: noun phrases and clauses verb (tenses, modals, and passives) adverbs and adjectives (including phrases and clauses) word order art
Vocabulary Usage (Appropriacy and Range) (Sample)
Criteria DescriptionScore
Vocabulary usage is about how you use English words. Raters are looking for responses that use different words correctly and accurately, and that use a wide range of words that help listeners understand.Score: 2 / 4
Score TOEFL Report 0 doesn’t address the task or no response was given

1 includes mistakes with basic word form includes limited vocabulary, with repetition and reliance on vocabulary from the question prompt often uses inappropriate or incorrect words or wording

2 may include some incorrect word forms attempts to use a range of words and phrases but may make errors that confuse the listener makes somewhat accurate word choice but at times leaves the listener guessing

3 uses mostly correct word forms uses a range of words and phrases that is mostly appropriate, possibly including some idiomatic language makes generally accurate word choice with only some effort by the listener

4 uses generally correct word forms with only minimal errors effectively uses a wide range of words and phrases, which may include phrasal verbs and idioms includes generally accurate word choice and at times demonstrates sophistication
Support & Development (Sample)
Criteria DescriptionScore
Support and development is about the content of your speaking response. Your content should be related directly to the topic, and you should have several main ideas that support your opinion or position. These ideas should be persuasive or compelling.Score: 2 / 4
Score TOEFL Report 0 doesn’t address the task or no response was given

1 does not include much relevant information has no or very little detail or explanation

2 includes some important information but not all key ideas presents several ideas or some information incorrectly or imprecisely may show lack of understanding of key ideas from listening and reading

3 includes most important information or key ideas may include some inaccuracies or imprecise ideas shows generally good understanding of key ideas but may not describe them specifically

4 includes all key ideas required by the question may have slight errors shows very good understanding of key ideas and the ability to explain them well includes all key ideas required by the question may have slight errors < 
Connections & Coherence (Sample)
Criteria DescriptionScore
connections and coherence are about how you put your ideas together and link different sentences to each other. Raters want to see speaking that flows naturally from idea to idea without confusing the listener.Score: 2 / 4
Score TOEFL Report 0 doesn’t address the task or no response was given

1 has little or no connection between ideas, making the logic difficult to follow includes no effective words or expressions of transition, introduction, or conclusion

2 has some connection between ideas but may jump between some topics, causing some listener confusion includes some brief or simple words or expressions of transition, introduction, or conclusion

3 has generally good connection between ideas includes generally good range of words or expressions of transition, introduction, or conclusion but may not feel wholly unified

4 has very good connection between ideas that are logically and effectively ordered includes a range of words or expressions of transition, introduction, and conclusion which conveys a feeling of unity and completeness

TOEFL iBT | Listening | Lecture | Social Networking | Note-taking

Welcome to the first of its kind! Today we’re going to be going over how to take notes! I’m excited to finally bring this to you, and if you had been following my TOEFL speaking videos, you probably know how to take notes. Well, in this lecture, I’m going to take notes down below and we’re going to compare our notes with the questions. Also, knowing HOW I take notes is the most important part of this podcast, too.

A science

interdisciplinary subject

interests to sociologists

we can define it as a social structure: social actors

groups, individuals, societies, relationships between them


1930’s — sociograms

visual representation or map based on relationships

network science

three levels;

micro – interactions small numbers — two individuals

meso – larger groups, still relatively low populations — business organizations

macro – interactions within populations

nuances lost, practical limitations at macro level

focus on outcomes, economic results

micro – social equality, mutuality, influence, prestige

dense cluster of connections

large grey = individuals with close social ties

one cluster – one company

another cluster – laboratory

information is redundant

two laboratories, not redundant = bridges between has structural hole

consultancy – good position to bridge it and access

whoever bridges, has more social cap

by keeping it, might hear of job opening and use information to forward to a company

strong interactions with different numbers were better paid

China — individuals that occupied in structual holes didn’t have benefits

  1. What is the best definition of social networking?
  • electronic communication with numerous acquaintances at once.
  • the study of the dyads between two individual people.
  • analysis of the relationships connecting social entities.
  • a study of the properties of single entities within a group.

2. How do studies at the macro level differ from studies at the micro level?

  • studies at the micro level tend to result in less reliable data.
  • studies at the macro level tend not to focus on the nature of a relationship.
  • studies at the micro level are less practical for researchers.
  • studies at the macro level are more useful when studying business organizations.

3. What is the most recent trend in the study of social networking?

  • mathematical formulae are being applied to interactions.
  • it is being used as a tool in both social and hard sciences.
  • social networking is becoming a science in itself.
  • computers are being used to measure and monitor networks.

4. The lecturer gives an example of a hairdresser and a laboratory to represent…

  • two clusters that carry redundant information.
  • two clusters separates by a structural hole.
  • two entities within the same cluster.
  • two organizations with the same amount of capital.

5. What does the lecturer infer about Chinese business organizations?

  • they do not benefit from individuals with links to many networks.
  • They consider people who exchange information with other organizations disloyal.
  • They are not interested in the study of social network analysis.
  • they are successful because their employees have greater social capital.

6. According to the professor, when can we say there is a structural hole in a sociogram?

  • when there is a link between two clusters with redundant information.
  • when there is no link between two clusters with non-redundant information.
  • when there is no link between two clusters with redundant information.
  • when there is a link between two clusters with non-redundant information.

TOEFL iBT | Listening | 8 TOEFL Listening Question Types

Welcome to the first of its kind! TOEFL iBT Listening has finally arrived! In this episode, I will go over 8 of the different types of listening questions. I used the audios from and do not own the rights to them, just to be clear. In saying that, you guys will hear how I compartmentalize information and how to follow the flow of the conversation because that’s what the majority of these tests are about. So, if you want exclusive mock-tests and more of these types, tune into my Patreon or ask me questions about the TOEFL iBT speaking, reading, writing and listening classes that will debut soon!

Source: Bestmytest