Welcome back to another TOEFL iBT Listening! Because the podcast on Beluga Whales has done extremely well, I decided to do another for you, follow by listening tips for success and a reading test! So we have an action-packed week of TOEFL coming up beginning today and going through the beginning of next week. In saying that, let’s get into it!
Process of which rural to urban/industrial
more and more move, cities got bigger and bigger
Why did they want to live there?
No need for them before factories because most people just farmed
1800s — inventors came up with machines of mass production
transformed agriculture, less human activity
people flocked to factories
Foreign countries and largest boom in immigration
fair share of positives and negatives
To house them, cheap building thrown up overnight
crowded and unhealthy — proper access to water, clean air, sanitsation
sickness and disease
new form — rise in crime
strong anti-immigrant feelings -=- strong racial biases and hate crimes
More opportunities, pay is higher in cities
Improvements to roads and businesses, transportation, subways, public trains
mass expansion of museums, libraries and theatres
revelation that public health mattered
first-large scale hospitals
As a result of massive movement
some of americas greatest cities: hundreds of new cities were born, New York 1.5 million and doubled to 5 million
Chi town – 300k people to 3 million people
Why cities had a tough time keeping up with growth
Most people live in urban landscapes
cities are much different: hospitals, libraries, parks, after 100 years, now we have policies
In what ways do we wstill need to grow, making same mistakes as a hundred years agobestmytest.com
1. According to the lecture, what was the main cause of urbanization?
– a lack of farming jobs because of famine encouraged people to find work elsewhere
– the invention of new machines transformed cities and farming, encouraging movement
– the attractive benefits of city life encouraged many people to make the move
– overpopulation meant that there wasn’t enough space in rural areas for all people
2. What does the professor suggest caused higher numbers of people to grow sick in cities?
- The lack of proper sanitation in people’s homes and neighborhoods
- the housing options forced people to live in overcrowded neighborhoods
- a lack of planning mean there was no trash or water services
- all of the above
3. According to the lecture, what was the result of so many new immigrants moving to America?
- The rise in population led to more communal sentiments and a strong country.
- along with new people came a new perspective on cultural acceptance.
- all the new people created racially divided communities discrimination and anger.
- the new races of people didn’t interact often and established their own cities.
4. What does the professor mean by the term “infrastructure”?
- The structures in a city that make life easier and enjoyable
- the shape that the different structures in cities take on
- the imagined potential for a city after planning is done
- the parts of a city that constantly need improvement
5. Why does the professor suggest that it’s understandable to see why cities had so many problems at first?
- he describes the lack of technology that was available for providing basic needs
- he explains that the political structures were bad and didn’t work for the people
- he illustrates that the population growth happened faster than the cities could keep up
- he imagines that the problems are part of any city at any time in history
6. What was the main point of this lecture?
- to provide questions for improving our modern cities
- to explain the causes and effects of urbanization
- to describe the poor living conditions of the early cities
- to compare and contrast past cities with modern cities