TOEFL iTP | Written Expression | Because & Because of; Although; During or When/While

We’re back with another Written Expression! IN today’s blog/podcast, which will be a relatively short one, we’ll be talking about the confusion of the expressions below.

Certain expressions, such as because are adverb clause markers and are used only before clauses. Other expressions, such as because of, are prepositions and are used before noun phrases or pronouns.

Adverb Clause Markers: Because, although, when, while

Prepositions: because of, despite, in spite of, during

Sample Items

Because migration to the suburbs, the population of many large American cities declined between 1950 and 1960.

Before a noun phrase (migration), the preposition of must be used.

Despite most people consider the tomato a vegetable, botanists classify it as a fruit.

Before a full clause, (most people consider the tomato a vegetable), the adverb marker although must be used.

Podcast

Instagram Story Questions

  1. Although/despite cats cannot see in complete darkness, their eyes are much more sensitive to light than humans’ eyes.
  2. Because/because of cheese is essentially a concentrated form of milk, it contains the same nutrients as milk.
  3. Because/because of its acute sense of smell, the bloodhound is often used in tracking.

TOEFL iTP | Reading | Federal Express

We’re back with another intermediate reading! In this podcast/video, I’ll be breaking down the Federal Express. I’m excited about the amazing TOEFL iTP Course that will debut soon! Stay tuned and make sure you sign up to my email list!

TOEFL iTP Pre-Sale course is available, too, for 50% off (priced at $27 for the Structure which will debut June 1st). You can buy it today and wait for the launch at the beginning of next month! 15 full lessons and 3-4 micro lessons for each one! Course is Here

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Reading

Federal Express is a company that specializes in rapid overnight delivery of high-priority packages. The first company of its type, Federal Express was founded by the youthful Fred Smith in 1971, when he was only 28 years old. Smith had actually developed the idea for the rapid delivery service in a term paper for an economics class when he was a student at Yale University. the term paper reputedly received a less-than-stellar grade because of the infeasibility of the project that smith had outlined. The model that Smith proposed had never been tried; it was a model that was efficient to operate but at the same time was very difficult to institute.

Smith achieved efficiency in his model by designing a system that was separate from the passenger system and could, therefore, focus on how to deliver packages most efficiently. His strategy was to own his own planes so that he could create his own schedules and to ship all packages through the hub city of Memphis, a set-up that resembles the spokes on the wheel of a bicycle. With this combination of his own planes and hub set-up, he could get packages anywhere in the United States overnight.

What made Smith’s idea difficult to institute was the fact that the entire system had to be created before the company could begin operations. He needed a fleet of aircraft to collect packages from airports every night and deliver them to Memphis, where they were immediately sorted and flown out to their new destinations; he needed a fleet of trucks to deliver packages to and from the various airports; he needed facilities and trained staff all in place to handle the operation. Smith had a $4 million inheritance from his father, and he managed to raise an additional $91 million dollars from venture capitalists to get the company operating.

When Federal Express began service in 1973 in 25 cities, the company was not an immediate success, but success did come within a relatively short period of time. The company lost $29 million in the first 26 months of operations. However, the tide was to turn relatively quickly. By late 1976, Federal Express was carrying an average of 19,000 packages per night and had made a profit of $3.6 million.

Longman
  1. The most appropriate title for this passage is
  • The problems and Frustrations of a Business Student
  • The Importance of Business Studies
  • The Capitalization of Federal Express
  • The Implementation of a Success Business

2. The word “developed” in line 3 could best be replaced by

  • come up with
  • come about
  • come across
  • come into

3. What is stated in the passage about Smith’s term paper?

  • Smith submitted through a delivery service.
  • It was written by a student of Smith’s.
  • Its grade was mediocre
  • The professor thought it had great potential.

4. What was a key idea of Smith’s?

  • That he should focus on passenger service
  • That package delivery should be separate from passenger service
  • That packages could be delivered on other companies’ planes
  • That passenger service had to be efficient

5. A “hub city” in line 11 is

  • a large city with small cities as destinations
  • a city that is the final destination for many routes
  • a city where many bicycles routes begin
  • a centralized city with destinations emanating from it

6. It can be inferred from the passage that Smith selected Memphis as his hub city because it

  • was near the middle of the country
  • had a large number of passenger aircraft
  • already had a large package delivery service
  • was a favorite passenger airport

7. The pronoun “they” in line 16 refers to

  • aircraft
  • packages
  • airports
  • destinations

8. It is NOT mentioned in the passage that, in order to set up his company, Smith needed

  • airplanes
  • trucks
  • personnel
  • faculty

9. How long did it take Federal Express to become profitable?

  • two months
  • one year
  • three years
  • six years

10. Which paragraph explain WHAT made Smith’s model effective?

  • the first paragraph
  • second
  • third
  • fourth

Podcast

YouTube

Answers on second page

{Patreon Special} Arsenio’s Business English Podcast | Season 6: Episode 37 | Is The Internet Bad?

Because of big tech companies and social media giants, all of which are clamping down on disinformation, older generations are pointing fingers at why the internet is so bad. Conspiracy theory-pushing YouTube channels have a free-flowing cesspool of comments stating, “I got off social media 3 months ago; best decision I’ve ever made.” Yet, you’re still on social media, on YouTube, commenting and sharing your opinion?

There are two sides of a talisman that you must pick up every day — PMA and NMA. One is being positive and the other one is being negative. The ample amount of opportunity that’s readily available to everyone who knows a specific skill online — is something we’ve never had in our past.

If you could fully utilize and use the inter, social media platforms and other pieces of technology to help better humanity, then you wouldn’t be part of the pity party.

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TOEFL iTP | Written Expression | Wrong Choice of So, Such, Too & As

We’re back with a wonderful special! In today’s podcast/video/blog, I’ll be diving into the wrong choices of the words mentioned above! Super excited about this one because it will be going live first on my IGTV. So, make sure you’re following me in the link down below!

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The words so, such, and too are used in the following patterns:

so + adjective + that clause

These boxes are so heavy that we can’t lift them.

(So is also used with many….that and much….that.)

There were so many people in the auditorium that we could barely get in the front door.

Such + adjective + noun phrase + that clause

It was such a pretty view that he took a photograph.

Too + adjective + infinitive

It’s too cold to go swimming today.

Notice that so and such are both followed by that clauses, but too is followed by an infinitive.

The words as and so are also sometimes confused:

Jane did so well as I did on the economics exam. (INCORRECT)

The coffee was as hot that I couldn’t drink it. (INCORRECT

Check podcast and YouTube for explanation!

Podcast

YouTube

  1. The sun is so bright to look at directly.

Correct pattern too + adjective + infinitive

2. In much of Alaska, the growing season is as short that crops can’t be raised.

The correct pattern is so + adjective + that clause.

3. The giant squid is so an elusive animal that at one time it was believed to be purely mythical.

Before an adjective + noun + that clause, the word such should be used.

4. The mineral grains in basalt are so much small that they cannot be seen with the unaided eye.

The phrase should read so small rather than so much small.

{Patreon Special – TOEFL iBT Badge} TOEFL iBT | Speaking Q4 | 1 on 1 Coaching | Ozone Layer

Here’s the last of the four-part installment! I hope you guys benefited from this as much as I did! Every month I will feature students from different countries around the world to come on and showcase their stuff. If you already aren’t following me on IG, you should! The COMMUNITY is AMAZING! In saying that, let’s do Ozone Layer!

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TOEFL iBT | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Question 3 | Group Think

Another fantastic podcast with some GREAT advice in regards to repetition and a few other things. Groupthink is one of the part 3 questions that is pretty difficult, so I wanted to see what details my student (during the consultation) would pick out of it. The details she got made up about 20% of what was said, and it was contradictory to what was said. Here’s some advice on how to stay away from potentially contradicting information.

TOEFL iBT | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Question 1 | Do You Prefer to Study Alone?

Welcome to another TOEFL iBT Coaching podcast! If you’re seeing this way in advance, consider yourself LUCKY. This is debuting April 13th but being uploaded months before. In today’s podcast, I have a wonderful Filipina nurse who wanted a consultation, so over the next three podcasts, you’re going to hear the question, followed by her response and then my breakdown. Tune in to this speaking question!

TOEFL iBT | Speaking Part 1 | Group Coaching | Full Session

Man, after this specific coaching session with two of my Brazilian nurses, I asked them if I could use some of this audio to share with you guys because I honestly believe with the amount of advice given and received in this podcast, it could be life-changing for a lot of you who have difficulty in the speaking question 1. We did 2-3 speaking question 1s per student, along with some sound advice towards the end. One of the nurses had excellent points of encouragement for her friend — and she was also able to identify the areas of need very quickly and fix them within just 20 minutes. Just a PHENOMENAL job. With that being said, let’s get into this jam session!

TOEFL iTP | Reading – Intermediate | Algae

Welcome back to another super special! Very sorry to all my TOEFL iTPers out there, but I’ve been focusing heavily on iBT which is a good 30-50% of what you would see on your reading test. Good practice on those blogs, too! Nonetheless, what we have here today is an intermediate-level reading passage and I’ll make it into a video/podcast, too, so look down below for the links!

TOEFL iTP Pre-Sale course is available, too, for 50% off (priced at $27 for the Structure which will debut June 1st). You can buy today and wait for the launch at the beginning of next month! 15 full lessons and 3-4 micro lessons for each one! Course is Here

Algae is a primitive form of life, a single-celled or simple multiple-celled organism that is able to conduct the process of photosynthesis. It is generally found in water but can also be found elsewhere, growing on such surfaces as rocks or trees. The various types of algae are classified according to their pigmentation, or coloration.

Blue-green algae, or Cyanophyta, can grow at very high temperatures and under high-intensity light. This is a microscopic type of algae, and some species consist of only one cell. Blue-gree algae are the oldest form of life with photosynthetic capabilities and fossilized remains of this type of algae more than 3.4 billion years old have been found in parts of Africa.

Green algae, or Chlorophyta, is generally found in freshwater. It reproduces on the surfaces of enclosed bodies of water such as ponds or lakes and has the appearance of a fuzzy green coating on the water. In large quantities, this type of algae may reproduce enough to give a green color to an entire lake.

Brown algae, or Phaeophyta, grows in shallow, temperate water. This type of algae is the largest in size and is most recognizable as a type of seaweed; kelp is a type of brown algae that has grown to lengths of up to 200 feet. Its long stalks can be enmeshed on the ocean floor, or it can float freely on the ocean’s surface.

Red algae, or Rhodophyta, is a small, delicate organism found in the deep waters of the subtropics, where it often grows with coral. This type of algae has an essential role in the formation of coral reefs: it secrets lime from the seawater to foster the formation of limestone deposits.

Longman
  1. What is the author’s main purpose?
  • to show what color algae is
  • to differentiate the various classifications of algae
  • to describe where algae is found
  • to clarify the appearance of the different types of algae

2. Which of the following is NOT true about algae?

  • all types have only one cell
  • it can be found out of water
  • it can use photosynthesis
  • it is not a relatively new form of life

3. the word “pigmentation” in line 4 means

  • size
  • shape
  • composition
  • color

4. The word “microscopic” in line 6 is closest in meaning to

  • mechanical
  • tiny
  • visual
  • bacterial

5. Algae remnants found in Africa are

  • still flourishing
  • photogenic
  • extremely old
  • red in color

6. Green algae is generally found

  • on the ocean floor
  • on top of the water
  • throughout ponds and lakes
  • surrounding enclosed bodies of water

7. The word “coating” in line 10 could best be replaced by

  • clothing
  • covering
  • warmth
  • sweater

8. Brown algae would most likely be found

  • on trees
  • near green algae
  • on rocks
  • in the ocean

9. According to the passage, red algae is

  • study
  • huge
  • fragile
  • found in shallow water

10. it can be inferred from the passage that limestone deposits serve as the basis of

  • coral reefs
  • red algae
  • subtropical seawater
  • secret passages

11. How is the information in the paragraph organized

  • various details supporting a theory are explored
  • various classifications of a specific life form are described
  • various stages of the chronological development of a life form are presented
  • various elements that compose a certain life form are outlined

12. This passage would most probably be assigned reading in a course on

  • chemistry
  • physics
  • botany
  • zoology

Answers on page 2

Podcast – Coming soon

YouTube – Coming Soon

TOEFL iBT | Reading | Techniques for Complete The Summary & Reference Questions

Welcome to the first-ever TOEFL iBT Reading section! If you guys are reading this on my blog, the podcast and video are down below. If you’re reading this on Spotify, thank you so much for supporting my podcast! If you’re reading this on Facebook, welcome to the live show! In today’s episode, we’re going to go over the 2 first types of reading questions on TOEFL iBT and how to navigate your way through them. I know quite a few of you have difficulty with specific ones, so I’ll cover all of them individually. Let’s kick this off.

Reference Questions

A Reference question is the type of reading question that will take you less than 30 seconds to read both the question and all the options. Also, this is probably the easiest TOEFL reading question type. Especially if you follow the strategies from this lesson, you will almost always get the question right! 

Let’s look at an example:

[2] Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Islands were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus the seed’s chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore.


The word “This” in paragraph 2 refers to: 

  1. the spread of ferns and mosses in Hawaii
  2. the creation of the Hawaiian Islands
  3. the evolution of ferns
  4. the development of plants that produce seeds


As you can see, in a reference question, you will see a word, usually a pronoun highlighted in the passage. You are asked what the highlighted word refers to. If it’s a pronoun then you need to identify what word the pronoun is replacing. 

Here are highlighted words you might be asked about:

  1. Subject pronoun: it, they
  2. Object pronoun: it, them
  3. Demonstrative pronoun: these, those, this, that
  4. Possessive adjectives: its, their
  5. Other reference words: the former, the latter, one, ones, another, other, others


Now, it is important to remember that you don’t need a full understanding of the passage in order to solve this question type. You just need to study the context surrounding the word. Usually, you just read the sentence where the highlighted word is mentioned, and then read a few sentences that come before it. 

Next, you need to analyze the sentence structure and find out the answer. 

Usually, you will see two structure types:

  1. Two sentences separated by a period
  2. One sentence separated by a comma