{Patreon Special} TOEFL iBT Reading | The History of Native American Trade

We’re back with some TOEFL iBT Reading! Document is down below, and it’s about the History of Native American Trade! This will be very useful to test and see if you can do the difficult passages. Answers are on the last page! 18 minutes to complete the passage! If you’re on my TOEFL iBT Badge, you get access to this and dozens more!

Patreon

TOEFL iTP | Reading – Intermediate | Algae

Welcome back to another super special! Very sorry to all my TOEFL iTPers out there, but I’ve been focusing heavily on iBT which is a good 30-50% of what you would see on your reading test. Good practice on those blogs, too! Nonetheless, what we have here today is an intermediate-level reading passage and I’ll make it into a video/podcast, too, so look down below for the links!

Algae is a primitive form of life, a single-celled or simple multiple-celled organism that is able to conduct the process of photosynthesis. It is generally found in water but can also be found elsewhere, growing on such surfaces as rocks or trees. The various types of algae are classified according to their pigmentation, or coloration.

Blue-green algae, or Cyanophyta, can grow at very high temperatures and under high-intensity light. This is a microscopic type of algae, and some species consist of only one cell. Blue-gree algae are the oldest form of life with photosynthetic capabilities and fossilized remains of this type of algae more than 3.4 billion years old have been found in parts of Africa.

Green algae, or Chlorophyta, is generally found in freshwater. It reproduces on the surfaces of enclosed bodies of water such as ponds or lakes and has the appearance of a fuzzy green coating on the water. In large quantities, this type of algae may reproduce enough to give a green color to an entire lake.

Brown algae, or Phaeophyta, grows in shallow, temperate water. This type of algae is the largest in size and is most recognizable as a type of seaweed; kelp is a type of brown algae that has grown to lengths of up to 200 feet. Its long stalks can be enmeshed on the ocean floor, or it can float freely on the ocean’s surface.

Red algae, or Rhodophyta, is a small, delicate organism found in the deep waters of the subtropics, where it often grows with coral. This type of algae has an essential role in the formation of coral reefs: it secrets lime from the seawater to foster the formation of limestone deposits.

Longman
  1. What is the author’s main purpose?
  • to show what color algae is
  • to differentiate the various classifications of algae
  • to describe where algae is found
  • to clarify the appearance of the different types of algae

2. Which of the following is NOT true about algae?

  • all types have only one cell
  • it can be found out of water
  • it can use photosynthesis
  • it is not a relatively new form of life

3. the word “pigmentation” in line 4 means

  • size
  • shape
  • composition
  • color

4. The word “microscopic” in line 6 is closest in meaning to

  • mechanical
  • tiny
  • visual
  • bacterial

5. Algae remnants found in Africa are

  • still flourishing
  • photogenic
  • extremely old
  • red in color

6. Green algae is generally found

  • on the ocean floor
  • on top of the water
  • throughout ponds and lakes
  • surrounding enclosed bodies of water

7. The word “coating” in line 10 could best be replaced by

  • clothing
  • covering
  • warmth
  • sweater

8. Brown algae would most likely be found

  • on trees
  • near green algae
  • on rocks
  • in the ocean

9. According to the passage, red algae is

  • study
  • huge
  • fragile
  • found in shallow water

10. it can be inferred from the passage that limestone deposits serve as the basis of

  • coral reefs
  • red algae
  • subtropical seawater
  • secret passages

11. How is the information in the paragraph organized

  • various details supporting a theory are explored
  • various classifications of a specific life form are described
  • various stages of the chronological development of a life form are presented
  • various elements that compose a certain life form are outlined

12. This passage would most probably be assigned reading in a course on

  • chemistry
  • physics
  • botany
  • zoology

Answers on page 2

Podcast – Coming soon

YouTube – Coming Soon

Arsenio’s Business English Podcast | Season 6 | Investment | Tips for Saving Money

Here’s a pre-investment podcast — podcast — for all of you out there. I came across a very informational video that brought the spotlight on my money and finances, especially over the year.  As you probably know, shutdowns had begun early last year and the majority of the world was caught-off-guard, including me. So, instead of being proactive, I was reactive. I didn’t have an emergency fund of 3-6 months worth of rent saved up. I didn’t have travel expenses saved up, or even the stipend for a pretty expensive visa. So, I had to work in overdrive to cover expenses and that was three months of stress.

After watching this video and in the midst of the second shutdown, I’m very excited about the “how to” save for a rainy day. Tune into the podcast before we dive into the beginning stages of investing!

Podcast

TOEFL iBT | Listening | Lecture | The Bronze Age

We’re back with a pretty good one today. I’ve always been intrigued by the Bronze Age, and today is going to be a lecture on it! Are you ready for some note-taking and answering of questions? Again, view the blog (if you’re reading this on Facebook) on page 2 (down below if you’re reading this on the blog) to check your answers!

Notes

Bronze popular item to trade

trade commerce, learned that 3k years ago between med sea was popular

other materials out of bronze, including glass

excavation in egypt on Nile, discovered ancient glass factory

importing unfinished, not true

Meso region consisting of middle Eastern countries

glass in Meso, oldest glass comes from

two productions: first stage — discs of raw glass

second, melted raw glass, discs, and created objects

Several processes involved, took corts, crushed it.

Then, mixed it with plant ash

ashes left after you burn plant material

low temperature in small containers like jars that were made out of clay

grassy material grounded into powder and die to color

dye *

Once cooled, broke the molds

inside were discs

Second stage

Discs were reheated

shaped into decorative objects

Most common: beads

Imitating precious stones

looked liek pearls and emeralds and difficult to distinguish

created vessels with narrow necks

probably valuable so not common to hold common food items

mostly red, used copper

any glass was popular, red bottles owned by thee wealthy

so difficult to make, mysterious, produced for royal family

beautiful objects made great gifts

strengthen political alliances

exporting glass, too

mutual trade with Meso because it was usually white or yellow

two white discs for two red discs

1

 What is the lecture mainly about

  • Different types of glass objects made by Egyptians
  • Whether Egyptians or Mesopotamians were the first to make glass
  • The history of glass production
  • New information about glass making and the use in ancient Egypt

2 What is the process for making glass disks? Put the steps below in the correct order

OrderProcess
1
2
3
4
  • a. Glass-like material is ground up and dyed blue or red.
  • b. Powdered material is heated at very high temperatures
  • c. Crushed quartz and plant ash are heated at low temperatures.
  • d. Containers are broken to remove glass disks.

3 What is the importance of the archaeological evidence recently found in Egypt?

  • It supports the theory that ancient Mesopotamians imported glass from ancient Egypt.
  • It shows that ancient Mesopotamians were producing raw glass.
  • It proves that ancient Egyptians imported glass from Mesopotamia.
  • It shows that ancient Egyptians were able to produce raw glass.

4 Using raw glass and the glass disks, what were the Egyptians able to create?

  • Cooking utensils
  • Artwork
  • Paper
  • Decorative objects

5 What are two kinds of glass objects that were valued in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia?

  • Cooking utensils
  • Beads
  • Containers
  • Stones

6 According to the professor, what are two reasons why ancient Egyptians exported glass? Click on 2 answers

  • To acquire stones such as emeralds and pearls from other countries
  • To acquire colors of glass not made in Egypt
  • To get bronze tools from other countries
  • To build relationships with foreign leaders

{Patreon Special} TOEFL iBT | Integrated Essay | The Roman Empire

With possibly the most difficult Integrated Task to date, you guys will have your hands full with this one. The Roman Empire is surely one of the hardest ones out there, so brace yourself, take your time and I’ll be looking forward to your responses! For those of you reading it on my blog, here’s the first paragraph.

The post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, known as the Roman Empire, was characterized by a government headed by emperors and large territorial holding around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Asia, and Africa. The Roman Empire was the largest empire of the Classical Antiquity period, and one of the largest in world history covering 6.8 million square kilometers. It was also among the most powerful economic, cultural, political and military forces in the world holding sway over 21% of the world’s entire population during that time period. The longevity and vast reach of the Empire provided a lasting influence of Latin and Greek language, culture, religion, inventions, architecture, philosophy, law, and government on future descendants. There are three reasons the Roman Empire became so powerful.

Patreon

Buzzsprout Affiliate Link: https://www.buzzsprout.com/?referrer_id=1242398

Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/thearseniobucksperspective

Spotify – https://open.spotify.com/show/0x39CEN5tHvfRtfZaAMTgQ

Podcast – https://www.spreaker.com/show/arsenio…

Podcast on iTunes – https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/t…

YouTube – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCIzp…

Facebook – https://www.facebook.com/thearseniobuckshow/

Website – https://thearseniobuckshow.com/

Q & A – ArsenioBuck@icloud.com

LinkedIn – https://www.linkedin.com/in/arsenio-b…

Instagram – https://www.instagram.com/thearseniobuckshow/?hl=en

The Arsenio Buck Foundation: https://thearseniobuckshow.com/?p=8676

Twitter: https://twitter.com/ArseniosESLPod

TOEFL iBT | Listening | Lecture | Helping Behavior

Welcome back to another listening! My TOEFL iBT Listening podcasts have doubled, so I’m going to continue pumping these out for all of you. In today’s podcast, we’re going to do some more note-taking and see if our notes help us answer the lecture.

Notes

definition: voluntary actions intended to help others with reward regarded or dis

help regardless of reward

pro-social behavior

benefit another individual or group

sharing, comforting, rescuing, and helping,

altruism

behavior without expectation internal/external

helping because it’s right

police officers, nurses, etc

Facet: kin selectin theory – evolutionary perspective

screens out species, preservation is important for survival

people tend to help people with similar genetic base

favors chance of survival

would be wrong to judge the other person

hesitant to help someone if traits not similar

instance, help someone who is black but not white

reciprocal altruism, motivation = based on expectation

reward is there

person risking, rescued for them in the future

negative state relief model –

Notes Section

Question

  1. What is the lecture mainly about?
  • negative-state relief model
  • Kin Selection theory
  • Different forms of altruism
  • Reciprocal altruism

2 According to this lecture, which of the following regarding Kin selection theory is not correct?

  • The behavior in Kin selection theory is an evolutionary process because of the natural selection
  • it explains altruism in evolutionary perspective
  • the tendency to perform behavior that may favor the chance of survival of people with different genetic base
  • it states people tend to help people with similar traits

3. What is the base meaning of Altruism?

  • pro-social behaviors that are carried out without expectation of obtaining external reward or internal reward
  • pro-social behaviors that are carried out only when the reward is immediate
  • pro-social behaviors that are carried out by only guilt every time
  • pro-social behaviors that are carried because you are afraid someone will see you not helping another person

4. What does Kin selection theory refer to?

  • the tendency to perform behaviors that may favor the chance of survival of people with similar genetic base
  • a tendency to perform behaviors that only help animals
  • a tendency to perform behaviors that only help small groups of African tribes in Uganda
  • a tendency to perform behaviors that may favor the chance of survival for your immediate family (husband/wife/children/parents)

5 If you help someone in need only because you are stressed out about the idea of not doing anything, what theory are you proving correct?

  • negative state relief model
  • unfriendly attitude model
  • America’s next top model
  • horrible person model

TOEFL iBT | Reading | 1 on 1 Coaching | Time-management & Vocabulary | Minerals & Plants

BOOM! We’re back with the first of its kind! I actually have another one scheduled to upload but not for a few months. Nonetheless, this is a full coaching session from one of my students, and in today’s coaching, I cover three main areas while walking her through a passage: time-management, double-checking vocabulary, and the before/after. There are lots of great techniques that could be used throughout this podcast (down below).

Podcast

MINERALS AND PLANTS

1) Research has shown that certain minerals are required by plants for normal growth and development. The soil is the source of these minerals, which are absorbed by the plant with the water from the soil. Even nitrogen, which is a gas in its elemental state, is normally absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions. Some soils are notoriously deficient in micro nutrients and are therefore unable to support most plant life. So-called serpentine soils, for example, are deficient in calcium, and only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive. In modern agriculture, mineral depletion of soils is a major concern, since harvesting crops interrupts the recycling of nutrients back to the soil.

2) Mineral deficiencies can often be detected by specific symptoms such as chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll resulting in yellow or white leaf tissue), necrosis (isolated dead patches), anthocyanin formation (development of deep red pigmentation of leaves or stem), stunted growth, and development of woody tissue in an herbaceous plant. Soils are most commonly deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen-deficient plants exhibit many of the symptoms just described. Leaves develop chlorosis; stems are short and slender; and anthocyanin discoloration occurs on stems, petioles, and lower leaf surfaces. Phosphorus-deficient plants are often stunted, with leaves turning a characteristic dark green, often with the accumulation of anthocyanin. Typically, older leaves are affected first as the phosphorus is mobilized to young growing tissue. Iron deficiency is characterized by chlorosis between veins in young leaves.

3) Much of the research on nutrient deficiencies is based on growing plants hydroponically, that is, in soilless liquid nutrient solutions. This technique allows researchers to create solutions that selectively omit certain nutrients and then observe the resulting effects on the plants. Hydroponics has applications beyond basic research, since it facilitates the growing of greenhouse vegetables during winter. Aeroponics, a technique in which plants are suspended and the roots misted with a nutrient solution, is another method for growing plants without soil.

4) While mineral deficiencies can limit the growth of plants, an overabundance of certain minerals can be toxic and can also limit growth. Saline soils, which have high concentrations of sodium chloride and other salts, limit plant growth, and research continues to focus on developing salt-tolerant varieties of agricultural crops. Research has focused on the toxic effects of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and aluminum; however, even copper and zinc, which are essential elements, can become toxic in high concentrations. Although most plants cannot survive in these soils, certain plants have the ability to tolerate high levels of these minerals.

5) Scientists have known for some time that certain plants, called hyper accumulators, can concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or greater than normal. A survey of known hyper accumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of choice. Hyper accumulators run the entire range of the plant world. They may be herbs, shrubs, or trees. Many members of the mustard family, spurge family, legume family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.

6) Only recently have investigators considered using these plants to clean up soil and waste sites that have been contaminated by toxic levels of heavy metals—an environmentally friendly approach known as phytoremediation. This scenario begins with the planting of hyperaccumulating species in the target area, such as an abandoned mine or an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff. Toxic minerals would first be absorbed by roots but later relocated to the stem and leaves. A harvest of the shoots would remove the toxic compounds off site to be burned or composted to recover the metal for industrial uses. After several years of cultivation and harvest, the site would be restored at a cost much lower than the price of excavation and reburial, the standard practice for remediation of contaminated soils. For example, in field trials, the plant alpine pennycress removed zinc and cadmium from soils near a zinc smelter, and Indian mustard, native to Pakistan and India, has been effective in reducing levels of selenium salts by 50 percent in contaminated soils.

Directions: Now answer the questions.

PARAGRAPH 1

Research has shown that certain minerals are required by plants for normal growth and development. The soil is the source of these minerals, which are absorbed by the plant with the water from the soil. Even nitrogen, which is a gas in its elemental state, is normally absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions. Some soils are notoriously deficient in micro nutrients and are therefore unable to support most plant life. So-called serpentine soils, for example, are deficient in calcium, and only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive. In modern agriculture, mineral depletion of soils is a major concern, since harvesting crops interrupts the recycling of nutrients back to the soil.

1. According to paragraph 1, what is true of plants that can grow in serpentine soils?

  • They absorb micronutrients unusually well.
  • They require far less calcium than most plants do.
  • They are able to absorb nitrogen in its elemental state.
  • They are typically crops raised for food.

PARAGRAPH 2

Mineral deficiencies can often be detected by specific symptoms such as chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll resulting in yellow or white leaf tissue), necrosis (isolated dead patches), anthocyanin formation (development of deep red pigmentation of leaves or stem), stunted growth, and development of woody tissue in an herbaceous plant. Soils are most commonly deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen-deficient plants exhibit many of the symptoms just described. Leaves develop chlorosis; stems are short and slender; and anthocyanin discoloration occurs on stems, petioles, and lower leaf surfaces. Phosphorus-deficient plants are often stunted, with leaves turning a characteristic dark green, often with the accumulation of anthocyanin. Typically, older leaves are affected first as the phosphorus is mobilized to young growing tissue. Iron deficiency is characterized by chlorosis between veins in young leaves.

  1. The word “exhibit” in the passage is closest in meaning to
  • fight off
  • show
  • cause
  • spread
  1. According to paragraph 2, which of the following symptoms occurs in phosphorus-deficient plants but not in plants deficient in nitrogen or iron?
  • chlorosis on leaves
  • change in leaf pigmentation to a dark shade of green
  • Short, stunted appearance of stems
  • Reddish pigmentation on the leaves or stem
  1. According to paragraph 2, a symptom of iron deficiency is the presence in young leaves of
  • deep red discoloration between the veins
  • white or yellow tissue between the veins
  • dead spots between the veins
  • characteristic dark green veins

PARAGRAPH 3

Much of the research on nutrient deficiencies is based on growing plants hydroponically, that is, in soilless liquid nutrient solutions. This technique allows researchers to create solutions that selectively omit certain nutrients and then observe the resulting effects on the plants. Hydroponics has applications beyond basic research, since it facilitates the growing of greenhouse vegetables during winter. Aeroponics, a technique in which plants are suspended and the roots misted with a nutrient solution, is another method for growing plants without soil.

  1. The word “facilitates” in the passage is closest in meaning to
  • slows down
  • affects
  • makes easier
  • focuses on
  1. According to paragraph 3, what is the advantage of hydroponics for research on nutrient deficiencies in plants?
  • it allows researchers to control what nutrients a plant receives
  • it allows researchers to observe the growth of a large number of plants simultaneously
  • it is possible to directly observe the roots of plants
  • it is unnecessary to keep misting plants with nutrient solutions
  1. The word “suspended” in the passage is closest in meaning to
  • grown
  • protected
  • spread out
  • hung

PARAGRAPH 5

Scientists have known for some time that certain plants, called hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or greater than normal. A survey of known hyperaccumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed nickel; cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of choice. Hyperaccumulators run the entire range of the plant world. They may be herbs, shrubs, or trees. Many members of the mustard family, spurge family, legume family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.

8. Why does the author mention “herbs,” “shrubs,” and “trees”?

  • To provide examples of plant types that cannot tolerate high levels of harmful minerals
  • To show why so many plants are hyperaccumulators
  • To help explain why hyperaccumulators can be found in so many different places
  • To emphasize that hyperaccumulators occur in a wide range of plant types

9. The word “afford” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • offer
  • prevent
  • increase
  • remove

PARAGRAPH 6

Only recently have investigators considered using these plants to clean up soil and waste sites that have been contaminated by toxic levels of heavy metals—an environmentally friendly approach known as phytoremediation. Toxic minerals would first be absorbed by roots but later relocated to the stem and leaves. A harvest of the shoots would remove the toxic compounds off site to be burned or composted to recover the metal for industrial uses. After several years of cultivation and harvest, the site would be restored at a cost much lower than the price of excavation and reburial, the standard practice for remediation of contaminated soils. For example, in field trials, the plant alpine pennycress removed zinc and cadmium from soils near a zinc smelter, and Indian mustard, native to Pakistan and India, has been effective in reducing levels of selenium salts by 50 percent in contaminated soils.

10. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 6? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  • Before considering phytoremediation, hyperaccumulating species of plants local to the target area must be identified.
  • The investigation begins with an evaluation of toxic sites in the target area to determine the extent of contamination
  • The first step in phytoremediation is the planting of hyperaccumulating plants in the area to be cleaned up
  • Mines and irrigation ponds can be kept from becoming contaminated by planting hyperaccumulating species in targeted areas

11. It can be inferred from paragraph 6 that compared with standard practices for remediation of contaminated soils, phytoremediation

  • does not allow for the use of the removed minerals for industrial purposes
  • can be faster to implement
  • is equally friendly to the environment
  • is less suitable for soils that need to be used within a short period of time

12. Why does the author mention “Indian mustard”?

  • to warn about possible risks involved in phytoremediation
  • to help illustrate the potential pf phytoremediation
  • to show that hyper accumulating plants grow in many regions of the world
  • to explain how zinc contamination can be reduced

TOEFL iBT | Reading | Full Lesson | Household Pests

Who’s ready for a full, crazy reading lesson? In the first of its kind, I have the FULL RUNDOWN for you guys today. We’re going to go through all these questions together and pray we can make it through. I would’ve like to make this live, but premiere’s are better because I can speak to you while the video is going. Nonetheless, the lesson is on household pests, and after all the reading techniques, let’s see if you got what it takes to succeed!

[1] Including almost 10 million species and representing over 90% of life on planet Earth, insects are ubiquitous. And while humans live peacefully side by side with most insect species, some pose a threat to human activity and habitats. You need only to consider the damage caused by insects to agricultural crops, and the ramifications for food security and agricultural economies, to understand their potential to wreak havoc. But it is not only the food we grow that can be threatened by insects; our homes themselves may be impacted. And while many pests – such as cockroaches and beetles – are regarded as disgusting and unseemly on our floors and walls, others may be outright damaging and threaten the value of a homeowner’s property. Two such pests are ants and termites.
 

[2] To a homeowner, termites can pose a significant threat. As detritivores, termites consume dead plant matter, which includes the wood we use in construction. Thus a colony of termites may undermine the strength of timber foundations, chew through walls, and hollow out stairs in a matter of months. This not only damages the home itself, but also creates safety hazards for the human occupants. Another insect capable of chewing through wood is the humble ant. Ants may put their well-deserved reputation for industriousness to work on more than just your house; they are also attracted to foods in the home and, left unchecked, can quickly become a terrible nuisance in the kitchen or garbage areas.
 

[3] Of course, pests such as termites and ants can be prevented, controlled, and eradicated, primarily through the use of chemical compounds that are toxic to the pests. These chemical compounds combat the insects at a biological level. Most compounds are composed of a pesticide, a dilutant, a particulate, a thickening agent, and a surfactant system. The pesticide is the toxic chemical that kills the pest, while the dilutant ensures that the compound does not endanger its human users (still, direct exposure is not recommended). The particulate agent suspends the pesticide within the dilutant, and the thickening agent serves to make the compound easier to apply to infested areas. Finally, the surfactant lowers the surface tension of the compound, further facilitating application.
 

[4] When it comes to pesticides, application is key. More specifically, the compound must be applied in the correct location, either exterior to the home or on the interior. Exterior application of a pesticide will help to prevent future pests from entering the structure. This commonly involves applying a compound to outside walls, porches, and window areas. Interior application can be more challenging, since insects seek out nesting areas which are relatively inaccessible to humans. This includes hollow spaces between walls, soft spots beneath floors, and hard-to-reach corners in cabinets and other furniture. Interior application is meant to eliminate those pests which have already infested a home. Thus effective pest control involves both prevention and eradication. While many homeowners choose to take the problem into their own hands and apply pesticides themselves, others choose to support the burgeoning pest control industry, hiring professionals who have the knowledge and equipment to ensure that compounds are applied safely.
 

[5] Exactly how big of a threat to termites and ants pose to homeowners? Global statistics are difficult to compile, but it is estimated that in the southwestern U.S. alone termites cause approximately 1.5 billion dollars in damage each year. The scale of the problem is such that the pesticide and pest control industries are growing, and entire communities have undertaken measures to control and eradicate these insects.
 

[6] While biochemical solutions remain highly effective methods of pest control, there is growing opposition to the use of chemicals in and around human habitation. The move toward “organic” food – that grown without the use of pesticides or herbicides – has helped to raise awareness of the potential health risks of such chemicals. Thus natural pest control, relying on non-toxic methods and compounds, is becoming more popular. Natural methods may utilize plants or even other insects to ward off or eliminate pests. Particular plants are known to repel particular insects; for example, crushed mint leaves are touted as an effective ant deterrent.

bestmytest.com

Questions

  1. The word “others” in paragraph 1 refers to…
  • cockroaches and beetles
  • pests
  • floors and walls
  • homeowners

2. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1?

  • a majority of the world’s insects cause problems to humans.
  • insects’ damage to homes is a greater problem than their damage to agriculture
  • insects are the most common type of animals on the planet
  • cockroaches and beetles are commonly misunderstood by humans

3. The word ‘unchecked’ in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to:

  • inside
  • uncontrolled
  • persistent
  • bothered

4. Which of the following components helps to make applying the pesticides easier?

  • particulate
  • dilutant
  • pesticide
  • surfacant

5. According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true of the interior application of pesticides?

  • it is more dangerous than exterior application
  • it helps to prevent an infestation from happening
  • it is more difficult than exterior application
  • it is not very effective

6. In paragraph 4, the author mentions “hard to reach corners in cabinets and other furniture as an example of

  • common points of entry for insect infestations
  • areas which should be avoided when applying pesticide
  • key pathways for insects within a home
  • possible nesting areas for pests

7.Which of the following best expresses the essential information highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

While many homeowners choose to take the problem into their own hands and apply pesticides themselves, others choose to support the burgeoning pest control industry, hiring professionals who have the knowledge and equipment to ensure that compounds are applied safely.

  • Homeowners may work alongside pest control professionals to support the safe and effect application of pesticide.
  • Some homeowners choose to support the pest control industry, which hires knowledgeable and safe professionals who can assist the homeowner in applying pesticides
  • Some homeowners deal with pests on their own, but others seek professional help for a higher level of safety
  • Even though the pest control industry is growing some people do not wish to hire professionals and instead attempt to control pests themselves.

8. In paragraph 5, why does the author mention “1.5 billion dollars in damage?”

  • to lend support to community-wide pest control solutions
  • to prove that estimating the impact of pests is difficult
  • to introduce the idea of natural pest control methods
  • to illustrate the extent of the problem caused by termites and ants

9 Examine the four █ in the selection below and indicate at which block the following sentence could be inserted into the passage:

Another natural approach involves altering the timing or pattern of lighting, since this appears to disrupt the insects’ breeding habits.

While biochemical solutions remain highly effective methods of pest control, there is growing opposition to the use of chemicals in and around human habitation. █ [AThe move toward “organic” food – that grown without the use of pesticides or herbicides – has helped to raise awareness of the potential health risks of such chemicals. █ [B] Thus natural pest control, relying on non-toxic methods and compounds, is becoming more popular. Natural methods may utilize plants or even other insects to ward off or eliminate pests █ [C] Particular plants are known to repel particular insects; for example, crushed mint leaves are touted as an effective ant deterrent. █ [D] .

A)

B)

C)

D)

10 Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Termites and ants are pests that can damage homes by chewing through wood.

?????

a. the pest control industry is growing rapidly, and pest control professionals can help ensure safe application of pesticides.

b. pesticides may be applied outside the home for prevention and within the home to kill existing insects

c. pests do a lot of damage to homes every year, and some people are turning to more natural methods of pest control

d. pesticides alone have been found to be less effective than pesticides used in combination with natural methods of pest control

e. compounds used to eliminate pests are typically comprised of several key ingredients

f. besides damaging homes, insects can cause significant damage to agricultural crops and food supplies

TOEFL iBT | Listening | Lecture | Urbanization in America

Welcome back to another TOEFL iBT Listening! Because the podcast on Beluga Whales has done extremely well, I decided to do another for you, follow by listening tips for success and a reading test! So we have an action-packed week of TOEFL coming up beginning today and going through the beginning of next week. In saying that, let’s get into it!

My Notes

Process of which rural to urban/industrial

more and more move, cities got bigger and bigger

Why did they want to live there?

Cities

No need for them before factories because most people just farmed

1800s — inventors came up with machines of mass production

transformed agriculture, less human activity

people flocked to factories

Foreign countries and largest boom in immigration

fair share of positives and negatives

Bad

To house them, cheap building thrown up overnight

crowded and unhealthy — proper access to water, clean air, sanitsation

sickness and disease

new form — rise in crime

strong anti-immigrant feelings -=- strong racial biases and hate crimes

Positives

More opportunities, pay is higher in cities

Improvements to roads and businesses, transportation, subways, public trains

mass expansion of museums, libraries and theatres

parks established

revelation that public health mattered

first-large scale hospitals

As a result of massive movement

some of americas greatest cities: hundreds of new cities were born, New York 1.5 million and doubled to 5 million

Chi town – 300k people to 3 million people

Why cities had a tough time keeping up with growth

Most people live in urban landscapes

cities are much different: hospitals, libraries, parks, after 100 years, now we have policies

In what ways do we wstill need to grow, making same mistakes as a hundred years ago

bestmytest.com

Podcast

1. According to the lecture, what was the main cause of urbanization?

– a lack of farming jobs because of famine encouraged people to find work elsewhere

– the invention of new machines transformed cities and farming, encouraging movement

– the attractive benefits of city life encouraged many people to make the move

– overpopulation meant that there wasn’t enough space in rural areas for all people

2. What does the professor suggest caused higher numbers of people to grow sick in cities?

  • The lack of proper sanitation in people’s homes and neighborhoods
  • the housing options forced people to live in overcrowded neighborhoods
  • a lack of planning mean there was no trash or water services
  • all of the above

3. According to the lecture, what was the result of so many new immigrants moving to America?

  • The rise in population led to more communal sentiments and a strong country.
  • along with new people came a new perspective on cultural acceptance.
  • all the new people created racially divided communities discrimination and anger.
  • the new races of people didn’t interact often and established their own cities.

4. What does the professor mean by the term “infrastructure”?

  • The structures in a city that make life easier and enjoyable
  • the shape that the different structures in cities take on
  • the imagined potential for a city after planning is done
  • the parts of a city that constantly need improvement

5. Why does the professor suggest that it’s understandable to see why cities had so many problems at first?

  • he describes the lack of technology that was available for providing basic needs
  • he explains that the political structures were bad and didn’t work for the people
  • he illustrates that the population growth happened faster than the cities could keep up
  • he imagines that the problems are part of any city at any time in history

6. What was the main point of this lecture?

  • to provide questions for improving our modern cities
  • to explain the causes and effects of urbanization
  • to describe the poor living conditions of the early cities
  • to compare and contrast past cities with modern cities