TOEFL iBT | Part 4 Question | Speaking | Coevolution | How to Take Notes

Welcome back to another TOEFL, everyone! In today’s segment, we’re going to learn how to take notes throughout the audio. Now, some are very long and some are short, but when it comes to the Part IV question, it’s much easier than Part III. So, I’m going to show you how to take notes (watch my video and listen to the podcast) and what you see down below are the notes I took on the video. So make sure you listen to the audio so you can piece them together.

two species affect each other

extreme example of mutualism

flowers/humming birds have evolved


color suited to vision

shape perfect size

high volume of nectar

meets energy requirements

blooming time – breeding season coincides

ants and trees

trees have something that ants live in / substance in food

ants attack plant-eating insects

two species rely on one another for survival


Listening Transcript

Okay! so we said that coevolution happens when two species reciprocally affect each other’s evolution. In fact, coevolution is an extreme example of mutualism. For example, honey birds and bird pollinating flowers have evolved a mutualistic relationship. The flower has nectar suited to the bird’s diet, the color suited to the bird’s vision and the shape is a perfect size for the bird’s beak. Bird pollinating flowers usually have a higher volume of nectar pollinated by insects. This meets the birds’ high energy requirements. Therefore, the blooming time of bird pollinating flowers usually coincides with honey bird’s breeding season.

Another example of coevolution can be found in Acacia ants and Acacia trees. The Acacia trees have large hulking trunks that Acacia ants live in. The tree makes a substance that can be used by the ants as food, while the ants defend trees from herbivores by attacking plant-eating insects and other plants competing for sunlight. So…ultimately, in this relationship of co-evolution, two species rely on one other for survival, while reciprocally affecting each other’s evolution.

TOEFL iTP | Grammar | Structure & Written Expression | Parallel Structure Sentence Break Downs

We’re back with the sentence break downs of parallel structures! This is the follow up from ______________.

  1. Frozen orange juice must be packed, _______________, and stored when the fruit is ripe.
  • be frozen
  • must be frozen
  • frozen
  • it must be frozen

2. Sioux is a North American Indian language that is spoken not only ______________ Sioux but also by the Crow and Osage tribes.

  • by the
  • the
  • do the
  • and the

3. In 1900 electrically powered cars were more popular than gasoline powered cars because they were quiet, operated smoothly, and ________________.

  • handled easily
  • easy of handling
  • handling easily
  • easy to handle

4. Roger Williams was a clergyman, _______________ the colony of Rhode Island, and an outspoken advocate of religious and political freedom.

  • founded
  • the founder of
  • was the founder of
  • he founded

5. Paint can be applied to a surface with rollers, _____________, or spray guns.

  • brushes
  • brushes can be used
  • with brushes
  • by brush

6. The use of labor-saving devices in homes, _____________, and factories added to the amount of leisure time people had.

  • at an office
  • used in offices
  • offices
  • in offices

7. A dulcimer can be played by either striking its string with a hammer or ______________.

  • to pluck them with the fingers
  • fingers are used to pluck them
  • they are plucked with the fingers
  • plucking them with the fingers

8. Throughout history, trade routes have increased contact between people, _______________, and greatly affected the growth of civilization.

  • have resulted in an exchange of ideas
  • an exchange of ideas has resulted
  • resulted in an exchange of ideas
  • resulting in an exchange of ideas

9. Walt Disney made many technical advances in the use of sound, color, and ______________ in animated films.

  • photographing
  • using photography
  • photography
  • use of photographs

10. Artist Paul Kane traveled throughout Northwest Canada on foot, by canoe, and _______________ to sketch Native Canadians going about their ordinary lives.

  • on horseback
  • riding a horse
  • horseback
  • by a horse

11. Barbara Jordan was the first woman in the South to win an election to the House of Representatives, _________ as Congresswoman from Texas from 1973 to 1979.

  • to serve
  • served
  • serving
  • has served

12. Photographers’ choice of a camera depends on what kind of pictures they want to take, how much control they want over exposure, and ___________ they want to spend.

  • the amount of money
  • what money
  • how much money
  • so much money that

13. Atlanta is the commercial, financial, and ______________ of Georgia.

  • center of administration
  • administrative center
  • center for administering
  • administering center

14. Even after the Revolutionary War, American importers obtained merchandise from Britain because British merchants understood American tastes, offered attractive prices, and _____________.

  • easy credit was provided
  • because of easy credit
  • easy credit
  • provided easy credit.

TOEFL Podcast

TOEFL iTP | Listening Part B | A Man’s Great-Grandmother

We’re back with a great TOEFL iTP podcast/video today! In today’s episode, I’m going to go over this structurally easy talk, but also emphasize how important it is to figure out a suitable technique for you to follow the questions.  Remember, tests this year are extremely difficult, so what you see me go over on today’s podcast/video is completely different from what you’ll experience. Tune in!

How often does the man usually talk to his great-grandmother?

  • Every evening.
  • Every week.
  • Every Sunday.
  • Every month.

What did the man’s great-grandmother tell him on the phone this morning?

  • That she was eighty-five years old.
  • That a storm was coming.
  • That she was under a great deal of pressure.
  • That she wanted to become a weather forecaster.

Where does the man’s great-grandmother say when she feels a storm coming?

  • In her bones.
  • In her ears.
  • In her legs.
  • In her head.

What will the man probably do in the future?

  • Call his great-grandmother less often.
  • Watch the weather forecasts with his great-grandmother.
  • Help his great-grandmother relieve some of her pressures.
  • Believe his great-grandmother’s predictions about the weather.



You guys will be extremely excited about this! I will be going over a full test of TOEFL iTP today, doing the Longman test and walking you through a number of techniques. In saying that, I have all the questions down below but make sure you tune into the podcast and YouTube video for explanations.

TOEFL iBT | Reading | 1 on 1 Coaching | Guide to Answering Questions

In this podcast, I discuss with a student from Afghanistan HOW to answer questions. The majority of students out there in the world are unsure how to answer — if they should take two sides or how long they should spend on the reading versus the material they listen to. Regardless of what task it is, here’s a 1 on 1 coaching with me explaining the details in the podcast down below.


Premium Business English Podcast:

Pronunciation Course Phase III:

Pronunciation Course Phase II:

Pronunciation Course Phase 1:


Podcast on Spotify:

Podcast on ListenNote:

Podcast on CastBox:’s-ESL-Podcast-id1251433?country=us




Q & A:



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TOEFL iBT | Speaking Part 4 | Speaking Challenge

In this podcast/video, I’ll be breaking down (through transcription) what a speaking IV looks like, taking out the key details, and then formulating it.
After that, I will play a two-minute recording for you guys to prepare, take notes, then send me voice messages either on my FB page or email so I can grade them.
Whoever does the best in the challenge gets a free hour of coaching with me in any area of TOEFL! Let’s go!

TOEFL iTP | Reading | North American Colonies | YouTube + Podcast

Welcome back, everyone! In this episode, I’m going to do a thorough break down of this TOEFL iTP reading passage — North American Colonies. I’ve been doing a lot of coaching as of late, so I decided to make my first YouTube video + podcast that pertains to the passage down below. I will give you techniques, how to answer questions, doing the these questions first, and much more. Hope you enjoy this!

The technology of the North American colonies did not defer strikingly from that of Europe, but in one respect, the colonists enjoyed a great advantage.  Especially by comparison with Britain, Americans had a wonderfully plentiful supply of wood.


            The first colonists did not, as many people imagine, find an entire continent covered by a climax forest.  Even along the Atlantic seaboard, the forest was broken at many points.  Nevertheless, all sorts of fine trees abounded, and through the early colonial period, those who pushed westward encountered new forests.  By the end of the colonial era, the price of wood had risen slightly in eastern cities, but wood was still extremely abundant.


            The availability of wood brought advantages that have seldom been appreciated. Wood was a foundation of the economy.  Houses and all manner of buildings were made of wood to a degree unknown in Britain. Secondly, wood was used as a fuel for heating and cooking. Thirdly, it was used as the source of important industrial compounds, such as potash, an industrial alkali; charcoal, a component of gunpowder; and tannic acid, used for tanning leather.


            The supply of wood conferred advantages but had some negative aspects as well. Iron at that time was produced by heating iron ore with charcoal. Because Britain was so stripped of trees, she was unable to exploit her rich iron mines. But the American colonies had both iron ore and wood; iron production was encouraged and became successful.  However, when Britain developed coke smelting, the colonies did not follow suit because they had plenty of wood and besides, charcoal iron was strong than coke iron.  Coke smelting led to technological innovations and was linked to the emergence of the Industrial Revolution.  In the early 19th nineteenth century, the former colonies lagged behind Britain in industrial development because their supply of wood led them to cling to charcoal iron.

  1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
  2. The advantages of using wood in colonies
  3. The effects of an abundance of wood on the colonies
  4. The roots of the Industrial Revolution
  5. The difference between charcoal iron and coke iron
  • The word “strikingly” in line 2 is closest in meaning to
  • Realistically
  • Dramatically
  • Completely
  • Immediately
  • Which of the following is a common assumption about the forests of North America during the colonial period?
  • They contained only a few types of trees
  • They existed only along the Atlantic seaboard.
  • They had little or no economic value.
  • They covered te entire continent.
  • The use of the word “abounded” in line 8 Indicates that the trees were
  • Present in large numbers
  • Restricted to certain areas
  • Cut down
  • Cultivated
  • According to the passage, by the end of the colonial period, the price of wood in eastern cities
  • Rose quickly because wood was becoming so scarce
  • Was much higher than it was in Britain
  • Was slightly higher than in previous years
  • Decreased rapidly because of lower demand for wood
  • What can be inferred about houses in Britain during the period written about it in the passage?
  • They were more expensive than American houses.
  • They were generally built with imported materials.
  • They were typically smaller than homes in North America.
  • They were usually built from materials other than wood.
  • Why does the author mention gunpowder in line 19?
  • To illustrate the negative aspects of some industrial processes
  • To give an example of a product made with wood
  • To remind readers that the Colonial era ended in warfare
  • To suggest that wood was not the only important product of the colonies
  • The word “conferred” in line 21 is cloest in meaning to
  • Consulted
  • Gathered
  • Provided
  • Restricted
  • The phrase “follow suit” in line 27 means
  • Do the same thing
  • Make an attempt
  • Have the opportunity
  • Take a risk
  1. According to the passage, why was the use of coke smelting advantageous?
  2. It led to advances in technology
  3. It was less expensive than wood smelting
  4. It produced a strong type of iron than wood smelting
  5. It stimulated the demand for wood
  1. The phrase “cling to” in line 33 is closest in meaning to
  2. Try to develop
  3. Avoid
  4. Continue to use
  5. Reconsider
  1. Where in the passage does the author begin to discuss in detail the advantages that an abundant supply of wood brought to the colonies?
  2. Lines 1-3
  3. Lines 5-7
  4. Lines 13-14
  5. Lines 21-22



TOEFL iTP | Grammar | Structure & Written Expression | Items Involving Parallel Structures

Now this is going to be a GOOD ONE for most grammar enthusiasts. Just recently, I did a very basic podcast on basic parallel structures.  In this podcast, things get a little bit crazier, but once you understand this, you won’t have just 1 or 2 — BUT THREE new sentence variations that you can not only include in your writing, but also understand when it comes to TOEFL.  Come on in!

In certain Structure items, the correct use of parallel structures is tested. Parallel structures have the same grammatical form and function. Look at the following sentences:

  • She spends her leisure time hiking, camping, and fishing.
  • He changed the oil, checked the tire pressure, and filled the tank with gas.
  • Nancy plan to either study medicine or major in biology.
  • Nancy plans to study either medicine or biology.

All of the structures in italics are parallel. In the first, three gerunds are parallel; in the second, three main verbs; in the third, two simple forms; in the fourth, two nouns. Many other structures must be parallel in certain sentences: adjectives, adverbs, infinitives, prepositional phrases, noun clauses, and others.

The most common situation in which parallel structures are required is in a sequence (A, B, and C) as in the first two sentences above. Parallel structures are also required with correlative conjunctions such as either…or or not only……but also.

Example Question

San Francisco has a pleasant climate, ____________ and many fascinating neighborhoods.

  • exciting scenery,
  • has exciting scenery
  • that the scenery is exciting
  • the scenery is exciting

This sentence contains a series of three objects after the verb has: the first and third are noun phrases (a pleasant climate and many fascinating neighborhoods). To be parallel, the second object must also be a noun phrase. Therefore, choice (A) is the correct answer; (B), (C), and (D) are not parallel.


Example question in podcast….

  1. Insects provide many beneficial services, such as ____________, breaking down deadwood, and pollinating plants.
  • they condition soils
  • to condition soil
  • conditioning the soil
  • soil conditioned


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In the trial phase, you get 2 tasks (one free) and pay an $8 dollar fee. The task will be graded and sent to you within 72 hours. This is also what you get: proofreading, grammatical mistakes corrected, structural mistakes corrected, estimated score, suggestions for the future, send any type of file (and you get this is the other two phases, too.


This is the best value. 8 tasks ($4 per task) and a turnaround of 72 hours.


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So, if any of you are interested, contact me on any of the links down below!

Pronunciation Course Phase 1:

Book A Call With Me:


Podcast on Spotify:

Podcast on ListenNote:

Podcast on CastBox:’s-ESL-Podcast-id1251433?country=us




Q & A:



Buzz sprout:

TOEFL iBT | Part 4 Question | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Bird Nests

Here’s another snippet (follow-up from yesterday) that I recorded.  On the bird nests, there was a lot of information to cover, and unfortunately my student missed out on almost the entire bottom paragraph.  I wish I had recorded the ensuing tests because she did remarkable after the first couple, especially in number 2.  Nonetheless, here we go!

When we think of bird nests, we typically imagine a simple cup-like shape made of twigs and branches, nestled in the crook of a tree. While many birds do craft nests like this, other birds create different kinds. Some birds craft elaborate nests for their young, while others simply lay their eggs directly on the ground. Today we will be talking about two types of bird nests: ground nests and burrow nests.

Many birds do not build traditional nests at all, but rather create a small depression in the ground or in leaf litter in which they lay their eggs. These nests are referred to as ground nests or scrape nests. Many shorebirds and some vultures build this type of nest. Other birds, like some species of raptors and owls, also nest on the ground, but they do not create a depression. These birds just seek out a secluded place and lay their eggs directly on the ground.

If you want an example, make sure you tune into the podcast down below!