TOEFL iTP | Written Expression | Wrong Choice of So, Such, Too & As

We’re back with a wonderful special! In today’s podcast/video/blog, I’ll be diving into the wrong choices of the words mentioned above! Super excited about this one because it will be going live first on my IGTV. So, make sure you’re following me in the link down below!

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The words so, such, and too are used in the following patterns:

so + adjective + that clause

These boxes are so heavy that we can’t lift them.

(So is also used with many….that and much….that.)

There were so many people in the auditorium that we could barely get in the front door.

Such + adjective + noun phrase + that clause

It was such a pretty view that he took a photograph.

Too + adjective + infinitive

It’s too cold to go swimming today.

Notice that so and such are both followed by that clauses, but too is followed by an infinitive.

The words as and so are also sometimes confused:

Jane did so well as I did on the economics exam. (INCORRECT)

The coffee was as hot that I couldn’t drink it. (INCORRECT

Check podcast and YouTube for explanation!

Podcast

YouTube

  1. The sun is so bright to look at directly.

Correct pattern too + adjective + infinitive

2. In much of Alaska, the growing season is as short that crops can’t be raised.

The correct pattern is so + adjective + that clause.

3. The giant squid is so an elusive animal that at one time it was believed to be purely mythical.

Before an adjective + noun + that clause, the word such should be used.

4. The mineral grains in basalt are so much small that they cannot be seen with the unaided eye.

The phrase should read so small rather than so much small.

{Patreon Special – TOEFL iBT Badge} TOEFL iBT | Speaking Q4 | 1 on 1 Coaching | Ozone Layer

Here’s the last of the four-part installment! I hope you guys benefited from this as much as I did! Every month I will feature students from different countries around the world to come on and showcase their stuff. If you already aren’t following me on IG, you should! The COMMUNITY is AMAZING! In saying that, let’s do Ozone Layer!

Patreon

{Patreon Special – TOEFL iBT Badge} TOEFL iBT | Speaking Q1 | 1 on 1 Coaching | Do You Prefer Teamwork or Alone?

We’re back! I’ve finally cut up some content for you guys and brought on my first-ever Moroccan! An amazing engineering student who’s full of life and EXCELLENT at speaking. I think the majority of you will benefit from her speaking in the coming days because this is the first of a four-part podcast in speaking questions.
With that being said, let’s dive into this!

Patreon

TOEFL iBT | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Question 4 | Forest Fires

Welcome to the last edition of this 4-part series, and in today’s podcast, we’re going to cover the part IV speaking question.

In part IV, you’re going to have to formulate an opening introduction before getting into specific details. This will provide you some guidance before getting into the two main examples/reasons. If you don’t, you may be lost. So, what you’re going to do is listen, take notes to the audio, and compare what you had taken with what the student had said before listening to my critique.

TOEFL iBT | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Question 3 | Group Think

Another fantastic podcast with some GREAT advice in regards to repetition and a few other things. Groupthink is one of the part 3 questions that is pretty difficult, so I wanted to see what details my student (during the consultation) would pick out of it. The details she got made up about 20% of what was said, and it was contradictory to what was said. Here’s some advice on how to stay away from potentially contradicting information.

{Patreon Special} TOEFL iBT | Reading | 1 on 1 Coaching | Summary Questions | Cave Art in Europe & Deer Populations

Having problems with summary questions on TOEFL? In this full episode with one of my students from Egypt, you’ll get a full rundown and hear how she’s able to overcome the issues that many of you have!

“Months ago I did some fantastic online coaching with one of my students, and in it I explained how you can summarize and find keywords in regards to the summary questions. Because there’s so much misinformation out there, even with TST Prep teaching students how to find the answers (not very effective), it could be very difficult as a non-NES speaker when you get conflicting techniques. So, follow us in the podcast down below and with the passages you see down below, too.”

Patreon

TOEFL iBT | Speaking | 1 on 1 Coaching | Question 1 | Do You Prefer to Study Alone?

Welcome to another TOEFL iBT Coaching podcast! If you’re seeing this way in advance, consider yourself LUCKY. This is debuting April 13th but being uploaded months before. In today’s podcast, I have a wonderful Filipina nurse who wanted a consultation, so over the next three podcasts, you’re going to hear the question, followed by her response and then my breakdown. Tune in to this speaking question!

TOEFL iBT | Speaking Part 1 | Group Coaching | Full Session

Man, after this specific coaching session with two of my Brazilian nurses, I asked them if I could use some of this audio to share with you guys because I honestly believe with the amount of advice given and received in this podcast, it could be life-changing for a lot of you who have difficulty in the speaking question 1. We did 2-3 speaking question 1s per student, along with some sound advice towards the end. One of the nurses had excellent points of encouragement for her friend — and she was also able to identify the areas of need very quickly and fix them within just 20 minutes. Just a PHENOMENAL job. With that being said, let’s get into this jam session!

TOEFL iTP | Structure & Written Expression | Like or Alike and Like or As

Lots to be covered in today’s blog/podcast! It was hard to put it in the title to make it make sense, but I can assure you that like/alike is ABSOLUTELY going to be on your TOEFL test when you take it, and too has a very high chance. So let’s dive into these basics!

The word alike is incorrectly used in place of like, or like is used in place of alike. This is what you’ll see on the test. So, to identify these words, memorize the following patterns.

Like A,…… | Like birds, mammals are warm-blooded.

A, like B, …. | Birds, like mammals, are warm-blooded.

A is like ……. | Birds are like mammals in that they are both warm-blooded.

A and B are alike | Birds and mammals are alike in that they are both warm-blooded.

Whenever you see the words alike or like underlined, you should suspect a word-choice error.

The word like is also sometimes confused with the word as. When like is used in a comparison, it is followed by a noun or pronoun. When as is used in comparison, it is followed by a clause containing a subject and a verb.

I did my experiment just as Paul did.

My results were much like Paul’s.

The word as is also used before nouns when it means in place of or in the role of. This is particularly common after certain verbs: serve, function, and use, among others.

The Vice-President served as President when the President was sick.

  1. Alike their close relative the frogs, toads, are amphibians.

Choice (A) doesn’t follow the pattern Like A, B….

2. Asters, as most perennial plants, bloom once a year.

The word like should be used in place of the word as before a noun phrase (most perennial plants).

Podcast

TOEFL iBT | Reading | Earth’s Age

Boom! We’re back with a tough reading, and I’ll be covering it for you guys! In today’s full reading segment, we have the infamous Earth’s Age write up which is a total kick-ass. Here we go!

[1] One of the first recorded observers to estimate Earth’s relative age was the Greek historian Herodotus, who lived from approximately 480 B.C. to 425 B.C. He realized that the Nile River Delta was in fact made up of a series of sediment deposits built up as a result of continuous floods. He noted that individual floods deposit only thin layers of sediment, and he was then able to conclude that the Nile Delta had taken thousands of years to build up. More important than Herodotus’s calculations of the Earth’s age, which are in fact trivial in comparison with the actual age of Earth, was the idea that one could estimate ages of geologic features by determining rates of the processes responsible for such features, and that it was possible to assume the rates to be roughly constant over time. Similar applications of this concept were used time and time again in later centuries to estimate the age of the formation of rocks, in particular, layers of sediment that had compressed and cemented to form sedimentary rocks.

[2] It wasn’t until the 17th century that any further attempts were made to understand clues to Earth’s history through the rock record. Nicolaus Steno (1638–1686) was the first to work out the principles of the progressive depositing of sediment in Tuscany. However, it was the founder of modern geology, James Hutton (1726–1797), who was the first to learn that geologic processes recur naturally, a key insight. Forces associated with subterranean heat cause land to be uplifted into plateaus and mountain ranges. The effects of wind and water then break down the masses of uplifted rock, producing sediment that is transported by water downhill to then form layers in oceans, lakes, or even seashores. With time, the layers then become sedimentary rock. These rocks are then uplifted in the future to form new mountain ranges, which exhibit sedimentary layers (and the remains of life within those layers) of the earlier episodes of erosion and deposition.

[3] Hutton’s idea thus represents an amazing insight because its discovery was able to unite many individual phenomena and observations into a conceptual picture of Earth’s history. With the further assumption that these geologic processes were generally no more or less vigorous than they are today, Hutton’s examination of sedimentary layers led him to the realization that Earth’s history must be colossal, that geologic time is an abyss and human history a speck by comparison.

[4] After Hutton, many geologists tried to determine rates of sedimentation so as to estimate the age of Earth from the total length of the sedimentary, or stratigraphic record. The numbers estimated for the age of Earth at the turn of the 20th century were 100 million to 400 million years. These numbers underestimated the actual age by factors of 10 to 50 because much of the sedimentary record is missing in various locations and because there is a long rock sequence that is older than half a billion years that is far less well defined in terms of fossils and less well preserved.

[5] A variety of other methods used to estimate the Earth’s age fell short, and could be seen as defective determinations of the Sun’s age. German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) recognized that chemical reactions could not supply the tremendous amount of energy flowing from the Sun for more than about a millennium. The age of the Sun based on the Sun’s energy coming from gravitational contraction was discovered by two physicists in the 19th century. Due to the force of gravity, the compression resulting in an object’s collapse must release energy. Ages for Earth were derived that were in the tens of millions of years, much less than the geologic estimates of the time.

[6] It was the discovery of radioactivity at the end of the 19th century that resulted in finally determining both the Sun’s energy source and the age of Earth. From the discovery of radioactivity came a wave of discoveries leading to radioisotopic dating. This then led to the realization that Earth must be billions of years old, and finally to the discovery of nuclear fusion as an energy source capable of supporting the Sun’s luminosity for that amount of time. By the 1960s, both analyses of meteorites and refinements of solar evolution models came together to settle on an age for the solar system, and hence for Earth, of 4.5 billion years.

Questions

1 According to paragraph 2, James Hutton was the first person to

  • work out standards of the dynamic saving of silt.
  • understand that geologic processes occur in repeating cycles
  • show the power of Earth’s warm inner core
  • comprehend pieces of information to Earth’s history through the stone record.

2 Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

With the further assumption that these geologic processes were generally no more or less vigorous than they are today, Hutton’s examination of sedimentary layers led him to the realization that Earth’s history must be colossal, that geologic time is an abyss and human history a speck by comparison.

  • Hutton understood that if these geologic procedures have dependably happened at about the same rate as they do today, Earth’s history is tremendously long compared to mankind’s.
  • Hutton’s idea revealed vast knowledge by bringing together numerous individual questions and ideas into a theoretical picture of Earth’s history
  • Hutton’s examination of aggregate layers caused him to infer that geologic processes have been by and large the same as they are today throughout Earth’s long history.
  • Hutton’s examination of clastic layers resulted in a breakthrough, and his decisions about geologic procedures are among the most noteworthy in mankind’s history

3 .As indicated by passage 4, what happened when geologists at the turn of the twentieth century attempted to gauge Earth’s age?

  • They disregarded Hutton’s discoveries about rates of sedimentation and by doing so their calculations were off by a factor of 10 to 50.
  • Utilizing the sedimentary record, they were able to figure Earth’s proper age within 100 million to 400 million years.
  • They didn’t realize that a great part of the sedimentary record is missing and in this way, believed that Earth was substantially younger than it is in reality.
  • They didn’t effectively ascertain the rates of sedimentation which caused them to incorrectly presume that the age of the Earth is considerably younger than it ought to be.

4 The word ‘defective’ in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to:

  • broken
  • late
  • unspecific
  • incorrect

5 For what reason is ‘gravitational contraction’ used in the entry?

  • To demonstrate that inquiries concerning the Sun’s vitality source were as intriguing to early researchers as inquiries regarding Earth’s age
  • To give prove that Hutton’s thoughts prompted an in material science and stargazing and also in geography
  • To refer to a strategy for assessing the age of the Sun that was utilized to decide Earth’s age
  • To clarify why there is such a lot of vitality spilling out of the Sun

6 As indicated by paragraph 5, Immanuel Kant perceived that the Sun’s vitality

  • was not possible through chemical reactions alone over a long period of time.
  • originated from powerful pressure resulting from gravity.
  • was to a great extent the consequence of synthetic responses that occurred over a time of over a thousand years.
  • was important to fuel the greater part of the concoction responses on Earth

7 As indicated by passage 6, which of the following isn’t valid about researchers latest estimate of Earth’s age?

  • It depends on data taken from the examination of shooting stars.
  • It is shockingly similar to estimates from the nineteenth century.
  • It is affirmed by sun based development models.
  • It puts the period of Earth at around 4 5 billion years.

8 Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 6 about the formation of the solar system?

  • The Sun was already billions of years old when the planets were formed.
  • The planets closest to the Sun formed first.
  • Meteorites entered the solar system sometime after the planets were formed.
  • All parts of the solar system formed at approximately the same time.

9 Examine the four █ in the selection below and indicate at which block the following sentence could be inserted into the passage:


This thought came to be known as the rule of uniformitarianism, and Herodotus was just the first to apply it.

One of the first recorded observers to estimate Earth’s relative age was the Greek historian Herodotus, who lived from approximately 480 B.C. to 425 B.C. █ [A] He realized that the Nile River Delta was in fact made up of a series of sediment deposits built up as a result of continuous floods. █ [B] He noted that individual floods deposit only thin layers of sediment, and he was then able to conclude that the Nile Delta had taken thousands of years to build up. █ [C] More important than Herodotus’s calculations of the Earth’s age, which are in fact trivial in comparison with the actual age of Earth, was the idea that one could estimate ages of geologic features by determining rates of the processes responsible for such features, and that it was possible to assume the rates to be roughly constant over time. █ [D] Similar applications of this concept were to be used time and time again in later centuries to estimate the age of the formation of rocks, in particular, of layers of sediment that had compressed and cemented to form sedimentary rocks..

  • [A]
  • [B]
  • [C]
  • [D]

10 Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Deciding the period of Earth has been a troublesome issue ever of.

  •  
  •  
  •  
  • A.Herodotus endeavored to compute Earth’s age by watching residue stores, however, modem standards for evaluating Earth’s age from geologic procedures emerged from crafted by Steno and Hutton.
  • B.Gaps in the sedimentary record started to be perceived by Kant and were later clarified by physicists contemplating the amount of energy provided by the Sun.
  • C.Radio isotopic dating, made possible by the discovery of radioactivity, as well as the revelation of atomic fusion, cleared up misconceptions regarding as to Earth’s age and the source of the sun’s energy.
  • D. Hutton portrayed the impacts of wind and water on masses of inspired shake and was the first to propose that a significant part of the sedimentary record was missing because of disintegration.
  • E. Estimates of Earth’s age from the past were amazingly low in light of what we know today about the rates of geologic procedures, and evaluations of the Sun’s age and vitality source.
  • F. In the 1960s researchers moved from the investigation of shooting stars to refinements of sun-based advancement models and decided the age of the nearby planetary group to be no less than a billion years.

Answers on Next Page